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# Correction Review Prepared by: Benjamin o. dulipas ms crim

Correction Review Prepared by: Benjamin o. dulipas ms crim. From a strictly Mathematical View Point.

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## Correction Review Prepared by: Benjamin o. dulipas ms crim

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1. Correction Review Prepared by: Benjamin o. dulipasmscrim

2. From a strictly Mathematical View Point What Equals 100%? What does it mean to give MORE than 100%? Ever wonder about those people who say they are giving more than 100%? We have all been in situations where someone wants you to give over 100%. How about achieving 101%? What equals 100% in life?

3. Here’s a little mathematical formula that might help you answer these • Question: • If: • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z • Is represented as: • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

4. Then: H-A-R-D-W-O-R-K 8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11=98% And K-N-O-W-L-E-D-G-E 11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5=96% But, A-T-T-I-T-U-D-E 1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5=100% And, look how far the love of God will take you L-O-V-E-O-F-G-O-D 12+15+22+5+15+6+7+15+4=101%

5. Therefore, one can conclude with mathematical certainty that: While Hard work and Knowledge will get you close, and Attitude will get you there, it’s the Love of God that will put you over the top!

6. Correction Correction is among the five Pillars of the PCJS and patterned from the system of United States and Great Britain. Originally, the third component was penology but due to modern and democratic trends in the field of Criminal Justice, it was changed to Correction. Thus, Correction evolved from Penology

7. Penology Greek term – PIONE – Penalty Latin word - “POENA”- Pain or Suffering. Latin word– PENO – Punishment Penology is the study of punishment for crime or of criminal offenders. It includes the study of control and prevention of crime through punishment of criminal offenders.

8. NATURE Penology is otherwise known as Penal Science. It is actually a division of criminology concerned with the philosophy and practice of society to repress criminal activities. Traditional penologist stood for the policy of inflicting punishment on the offenders as a consequence of their wrongdoing. However modern penologists have reasonably extended their field such that Penology today covers other policies that are not punitive in character, such as: 1. Probation 2. Parole 3. Medical Treatment, and 4. Education These programs are designed to cure or rehabilitate the offender; in fact this is the accepted nature of the penology.

9. What is Penal Management? • Refers to the manner or practice of managing or controlling places of confinement as in jails or prisons.

10. What is Correction? A. A branch of the CJS concerned with the custody, supervision and rehabilitation of the convicted offenders. B. Is that field of criminal justice administration which utilizes the body of knowledge and practices of the government and the society in general involving the processes of handling individuals who have been convicted of offense for purposes of crime prevention and control.

11. What is Correction as a Process ? • Correction as a process is the reorientation of the criminal offender to prevent him or her from repeating his delinquent actions without the necessity of taking punitive action but rather introduction of individual measures of reformation.

12. What is Correctional Administration? The study and practice of a systematic management of Jails or Prison and other Institution concerned with the custody, treatment, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

13. What is Correctional Psychology? • That aspect of forensic psychology which is concerned with the diagnosis and classification of offenders, the treatment ofcorrectional populations, and the rehabilitation of inmates and other law violators

14. Theories of Punishment • RETRIBUTION – An eye for an eye philosophy of justice -It generally requires harsh punishment • Just Deserts -philosophy of punishments, implying that offenders get what they deserve -Emphasizes the idea of penal censure of defendant. Sees the punishment as being proportional to the seriousness of the crime.

15. DETERRENCE – The theory of punishment which envisages that potential offenders will refrain from committing crimes out of fear of punishment Theories of Deterrence 1. Classical theory 2. Choice theory or rational choice theory

16. 2 Types of Deterrence 1. General deterrence: The offender is punished to serve as an example to all others who may be contemplating a similar offense 2. Specific or Individual deterrence: To prevent the offender from re-offending

17. Types Correctional Model 1. Custodian Model -based on the assumption that prisoners have been incarcerated for the protection society and for the purpose in incapacitation, deterrence and retribution. It emphasizes maintenance and security and order through the subordination of the prisoner to the authority of the warden. Discipline is strictly applied and most aspect of behavior is regulated.

18. Types Correctional Model 2. Rehabilitation Model- security and house keeping activities viewed primarily as a framework for rehabilitative efforts. Professional treatment specialist enjoys a higher status than the employees, in accordance with the idea that all aspect of prison management should be directed towards rehabilitation with the rethinking of the goal of the rehabilitation.

19. Types Correctional Model 3. Reintegration Model - is linked to the structures and goals of community corrections but has direct impact on prison operations. Although on offender is confined in prison, that experience is pointed toward reintegration into society. This kind of treatment gradually gives inmates greater freedom and responsibility during their confinement and move them into a halfway house, work release programs, or community correctional center before releasing them to supervision. Consistent with the perspective of community corrections, this model is based on the assumption that it is important for the offender to maintain or develop ties with free society the entire focuses this approach is on the resumption of a normal life (Clear and Cole, 1986).

20. What is Punishment ? • - is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense. "The penalty inflicted".- it is the redress that the state takes against an offending • member of the society that usually involve pain or suffering. • it is also the penalty imposed on an offender for a crime or wrongdoing.

21. Redress (Compensation) of a wrong act. • Retaliation (Personal Vengeance) – the earliest remedy for a wrong act to any one (in the primitive society). The concept of personal revenge by the victim’s family or tribe against the family or tribe of the offender, hence “blood feuds” was accepted in the early primitive societies. • Fines and Punishment – Customs has exerted effort and great force among primitive societies. The acceptance of vengeance in the form of payment (cattle, food, personal services, etc.) became accepted as dictated by tribal traditions.

22. Ancient Forms of Punishment: 1. Death Penalty – affected by burning, beheading, hanging, and pillory and other forms of medieval executions. 2. Physical Torture – Barbaric forms of inflicting pain. ex. Mutilation, Whipping. 3. Social Degradation – Putting the offender into shame or humiliation. 4. Banishment or Exile – The sending or putting away of an offender which was carried out either by prohibition against coming into a specified territory such as an Island to where the offender has been removed. 5. Other similar forms of punishment like transportation and slavery.

23. Method of Punishment • Public Humiliation - Shame punishment • Exile/banishment • Payment to the victim • Branding- (Stigmatizing) - is the process by which a mark is burned into the skin of a living person. • Flogging- (flagellation) - is the act of methodically beating or whipping the human body. • Mutilation - (maiming) - is the act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living body usually without causing death. • burning • beheading

24. Early Forms of Prison Discipline: 1. Hard Labor – Productive works. 2. Deprivation – Deprivation of everything except the bare essential of existence. 3. Monotony – Giving the same food that is “off diet”, or requiring the prisoners to perform drab or boring daily routine. 4. Uniformity – “We treat the prisoner alike”. “The fault of one is the fault of all”. 5. Mass Movement – Mass living in the cellblocks, mass eating, mass recreation, mass bathing. 6. Degradation – uttering insulting words or languages on the part of prisoners to degrade or break the confidence of prisoners. 7. Corporal Punishment – Imposing brutal punishment or employing physical force to intimidate a delinquent inmate. 8. Isolation or solitary confinement – Non- communication, limited news. “ The lone Wolf’.

25. Contemporary Forms of Punishment: 1. Imprisonment – putting the offender in prison for the purpose of protecting the public against criminal activities and at the same time rehabilitating the prisoners by requiring them to undergo institutional treatment programs. 2. Parole – a conditional release of a prisoner after serving part of his/her sentence in prison for the purpose of gradually re-introducing him/her to free life under the guidance and supervision of a parole officer. 3. Probation – a disposition whereby a defendant after conviction of an offense, the penalty of which does not exceed six years imprisonment, is released subject to the conditions imposed by the releasing court and under the supervision of a probation officer. 4. Fine – an amount given as a compensation for a criminal act. 5. Destierro – the penalty of banishing a person from the place where he committed a crime, prohibiting him to get near or enter the 25-kilometer perimeter.

26. Justifications of Punishment 1. Retribution – The punishment should be provided by the state whose sanction is violated; to afford the society or the individual the opportunity of imposing upon the offender suitable punishment as might be enforced. Offenders should be punished because they deserve it. 2. Expiation or Atonement – It is punishment in the form of group vengeance where the purpose is to appease the offended public or group. 3. Deterrence – Punishment gives lesson to the offender by showing to others what would happen to them if they violate the law. Punishment is imposed to warn potential offenders that they cannot afford to do what the offender has done.

27. 4. Incapacitation and Protection – The public will protect, if the offender has being held conditioning where he cannot harm others especially the public. Punishment is effective by placing offenders in prison so that society will be ensured from further criminal depredations of criminals. 5. Reformation or Rehabilitation – It is the establishment of the usefulness and responsibility of the offender. Society’s interest can be better served by helping the prisoner to become law abiding citizen and productive upon his return to the community by requiring him to undergo intensive program of rehabilitation in prison.

28. Penalty – Is defined as the suffering inflicted by the state against an offending member for the transgression of Law. Juridical Conditions of penalty: Punishment must be: 1. Productive of Suffering –Affecting the integrity of the human personality. 2. Commensurate with the offense – Different crimes must be punished with different penalties (Art. 205, RPC). 3. Personal – The guilty one must be the one to be punished, no proxy. 4. Legal – The consequences must be in accordance with the law. 5. Equal – Equal for all person. 6. Certain – No one must escape its effects. 7. Correctional – Changes the attitudes of offenders and become law-abiding citizens.

29. Duration of Penalties: 1. Death Penalty – Capital punishment 2. Reclusion Perpetua – An imprisonment of 20 yrs and 1 day to 40 yrs imprisonment. 3. Reclusion Temporal – an imprisonment of 12yrs and 1day to 20yrs imprisonment. 4. Prison Correctional – 6 months and 1days to 6yrs. 5. Arresto Mayor – 1month and 1day to 6 months. 6. ArrestoMenor – 1 day to 30 days. 7. Bond to keep the peace – Discretionary on the part of the court.

30. Major types of prison organization in U.S 1. Northern Industrial Prison- under this type of Prison, prisoner should work for the benefits of the state. 2. Southern Plantation- a prison that the labor of he convicted prisoner was concentrated on agricultural plantation. 3. Chain gangs- labor on public works through out the state were performed by the prisoners rather than confining their labor were chains to avoid escape. They called themselves chain gangs

31. Three “Revolutions” in the History of Corrections • Age of reformation – replaced corporal punishment, exile, and physical disfigurement with the penitentiary. • Age of rehabilitation – assumed that criminals were handicapped persons suffering from mental or emotional deficiencies. Under this, individual therapy aimed at healing these personal maladjustments, became the preferred style. • Age of reintegration – society becomes the “patient” as well as the offender. Much more emphasis is placed on the pressure exerted on the offender by the social groups to which he belongs and on the society which regulates his opportunities to achieve his goals.

32. History of Corrections • Twelve Tables of Wood- (451-450 BC)- represented the earliest codification of Roman Law. The influence by the Twelve Tables extended to the 6th century AD when they were largely incorporated into the Justinian Code. • Benefits of Clergy- provided an escape from severe punishment of members of clergy such as ordained clerk, moves and nuns by subjecting them to the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts. Ecclesiastical punishment were more lenient because the focus of the Church was on Penance and Salvation of the soul rather than in the administering of physical punishment for the purposes of deterrence or revenge. • Securing Sanctuary- in the 13th century, a criminal could avoid punishment by claiming refugee in a church, for a period of forty (40) days at the end of which time he was compelled to leave the realm by a road or part assigned to him.

33. History of Corrections • Ordeal- was the church’s substitute for a trial until the 13th century, where in guilt or innocence was determined by the availability of the accused to come unscratched through dangerous and painful tests. • The Holy Inquisition- a general label for a succession of Roman Catholic tribunals changed with the detection and punishment of heresy. Inquisition proper did not begin until 1215 AD when the Lateran council decided that the used of torture was appropriate which was supplemented by an extensive system of informers and detailed records kept of every element in proceedings.  • St. Bridget’s Well- England’s first Houses of Corrections, 1557

34. History of Corrections • Hulks- were abandoned or unusable transport ships, which were converted into prisons as a means of relieving prison congestion when transported system was abandoned in rivers or harbors and were also known as “floating wells”. • Panoptican Prison- a type of prison conceived by Bentham which would consist of large circular building of case irons and glass containing multi- tiered cells round the periphery. • Cat-O’ nine- tails- a lash of none knotted hongs of raw hide attached to a solid handle used in the administration of flogging which was the most popular methods of corporal punishment in the 18th century.

35. History of Corrections • Bridewell- the term applied to houses of corrections which were used for locking –up, employing and beggars prostitutes and other misfits. These were built around the acceptance of the value of regular work and the formation of “habits of industry”. • 1576- English Parliamentary passed a law calling for each county to build its own Bridewell. • 1703- Pope Clement XI built Hospicio de San Michelle in Rome designed for incorrigible youths under 20 years of age, and which was the first home for delinquent boys ever established.

36. The History of Corrections • Important Personalities: • William Penn ( America ). He included in his legislation for Pennsylvania that imprisonment shall be the prescribed punishment for criminals; that all prisons shall be workhouses for felons, vagrants, and idle persons, and that each county shall build one. The colony of the New Plymouth provided for the erection of House of Correction for the confinement of Quakers.

37. The History of Corrections • Important Personalities: • George Fox (17th century, England ). He founded the so-called “Quakers”, known as the Society of Friends, a church known for pacifism, humanitarian and emphasis on inner quiet, which was persecuted for its rejection of organized churches.

38. The History of Corrections • Important Personalities: - JOHN HOWARD – identified as the Great Prison Reformer and author of “The State of Prisons in England • John Howard. “Father of Prisons Reform”. Visited every Jail and prison in Jurisdiction. a. Documented conditions in the State of Prison in England – 1777 b. Lead to formation several prisons societies c. Also led to Penitentiary Act of 1779 – Intended to make prisons: • Safe and sanitary • Operate with out fees • Impose regimen of reform • Be Systematically inspected

39. The History of Corrections • Important Personalities: - VICOMTE JEAN JACQUES PHILIPPE VILLAIN XIV – Father of Modern Penitentiary Science and founder of the House of Correction in Ghent, Belgium

40. Persons Responsible for Introducing Reforms in the Correctional Field 1. Manuel Montesimos – He was the Director of Prisons at Valencia, Spain in 1838, who divided prisoners into companies and appointed prisoners as petty officers in charge; allowed the reduction of the inmates’ sentences by one third (1/3) for good behavior; offered trade training to prepare the convicts for return to society. 2. Domets(Demetz) of France – Established an agricultural colony for delinquent boys in 1839, providing house fathers as in charge of these boys. He concentrated on re-education; upon their discharge, the boys were placed under the supervision of a patron.

41. 3. Alexander Maconochie– As Superintendent of the Penal Colony at Norfolk Island in Australia in 1848, he introduced a progressive humane system to substitute for corporal punishment known as the “Mark System” wherein a prisoner was required to earn a number of marks based upon proper department, labor, and study in order to entitle him to a ticket of leave or conditional release which is similar to parole. Alexander Maconochie. He is considered as one of the father of modern penology.

42. 4. Sir Walter Crofton – He was the Director of the Irish Prisons in 1854, who introduced the Irish system which was later called the progressive stage system. The Irish system was actually a modification of Maconochie’ssystem, and consisted of four stages: (1) Solitary confinement or prisoners for nine months, receiving reduced diet and monotonous work, gradually progressing to a better treatment toward the end of the first stage, (2) Assignment to public works in association with other convicts, (3) Sending to a place which was a sort of preparation for release where the prisoner worked without custodial supervision, exposing him to ordinary temptations of freedom, and finally (4) Release of the prisoner on supervision under conditions equivalent to parole.

43. 5. Zebulon R. Brockway (1827-1920). He was the director of the Elmira Reformatory in New York, 1876. He introduced a certain innovational programs like the following, training school type, compulsory education of prisoners, caseworks method, extensive use of parole, indeterminate sentence. Regarded as the father of prison reform in the United States. • Believed that the primary reason to have a prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not simply to punish. Warden at the Elmira reformatory from 1876 to 1900.

44. 6. Sir Evelyn RugglesBrise – He was the director of English Prisons who opened the Borstal Institution after visiting Elmira Reformatory in 1897. Such Borstal Institutions today are considered as the best reform institutions for young offenders. This system was based entirely on the individualized treatment.

45. Other Personalities • PETER RENTZEL – established a workhouse in Hamburg at his own expense(1669) because he had observed that thieves and prostitutes were made worse instead of better by pillory and he hoped that they might improve by work and religious instruction in a work house. • DOMETS of FRANCE – established an agricultural colony for delinquent boys • THOMAS ALVA EDISON – discovered the electric chair

46. Other Personalities • Karl Menninger: He differentiate punishment is a pain inflicted over the years for the sake of inflicting pain while penalty is a predetermined drive leveled automatically for a crime committed. • Aristotle: First attempted to explain crimes in his book “Nicomedian Ethics”. He discussed corrective justice thus punishment is a means of restoring the balance between pleasure and pain. • Elizabeth Fry -  An English reformer sometimes referred to as the "angel of prisons" because of her driving force behind new legislation  to treat prisoners humanely.

47. Elmira Reformatory Movement Elmira and the American Reformatory System – The Elmira Reformatory, New York, a person constructed like typical Auburn Prison, was opened in 1876, with Zebulon R. Brockway as the first superintendent. The reformatories housed youthful offenders between ages sixteen (16) and thirty (30) and were first offenders. Under this program: 1. A new prisoner was classified as second grade, 2. Promoted to first grade after six months of good behavior, 3. Another six months of good behavior in the first grade qualified him for parole. However, if the prisoner committed misconduct, he was demoted to third grade where he was required to show good behavior for one month before he could be reclassified to second grade.

48. Elmira Reformatory • The is considered as the forerunner of modern penology because it had all the elements of a modern correctional system, among which were a training school type, that is, compulsory education, casework method, and extensive use of parole based on the indeterminate sentence.

49. OTHERS: • Devil's island - French penal colony from 1852 to 1959 where     political prisoners are exiled. • Robben island  -  A prison complex located at the coast of  Cape town south Africa which serve as a refugee camp for people afflicted with leper before converted into a prison.

50. OTHERS: • Magna Carta - England's historic document which states that no man could be imprisoned without trial. • Port Arthur - located in Tasmania, Australia, is a penal colony which is the   destination for the hardest English prisoner during the middle of the 19th century.

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