CLIMATE AFFECTS VEGETATION • Low Latitudes: TROPICAL CLIMATE • Tropical Rainforest: broadleaf evergreens – S. America • Australia, Indonesia Savanna with Acacia tree RAINFOREST Tropical Savanna: tropical grasslands generally taller than prairie or steppe grasslands. Some trees in the hot/dry season. East Africa and south India, Pampas – S. Brazil, Paraguay
Mid Latitudes: Temperate or Moderate Climate Zone • What causes the variety??? Movement of cool and warm air masses! Remember convection and rotation. • Marine West Coast – cool, wet summers, wet winters • Deciduous and coniferous forests • Location – NW coast of US, into Canada, and Europe, • SW Chile, southern Argentina • Mediterranean – dry summers, cool, wet winters • Chaparral – small, scrubby shrubs and trees • Location – coastal areas, north Africa • Southern CA
Humid Continental – long, cold, snowy winters, short , hot summers • Huge temperature range – land releases temp quickly • Deciduous trees and some grasses (shorter, less water) or Steppe • Humid Subtropical – mild, winters, hot, humid summers • Area is affected by both tropical, warm air masses and cold Polar • Air masses. • Deciduous and Live Oaks, some evergreens, pines in our SE area • High Latitude Climate: bitter cold • Subarctic: closest to mid-lats; • Taiga forests –huge evergreen forests • Tundra:very cold; closer to the poles; permafrost – lower levels stay frozen; no trees, low-growing plants – They hide from the cold winds!!
Ice Cap: the coldest - negative 128 degrees F • Vegetation here has adapted: low, close to the ground • Because of brutal winds – lichens,moss • Dry Climates: areas of dry, hot days, cold nights • Desert – receives less than 10” rainfall per year • Vegetation – cactus, scrub – plants retain moisture • Steppe – “treeless” plain – receives 10”-20” rainfall/year • these are temperate grasslands - short Highland Climate: elevation! At sea level in the high latitudes or even as high as 16000 feet closer to the Equator