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Normal Postpartum

Normal Postpartum

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Normal Postpartum

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  1. Normal Postpartum Chapter 21

  2. It is the period of recovery that occurs from childbirth and extends for 6 weeks after delivery What is involution? Normal Puerperium

  3. Postpartal Physical Adaptations

  4. Reproductive System Changes

  5. What are the three ways that the uterus involutes? The Uterus

  6. Contraction of the Uterus • Muscle fibers become shorter controlling the bleeding by compressing and sealing off blood vessels – Acting as “the living ligature”

  7. Protein Material Catabolism • Release of a proteolytic enzyme into the endometrium and myometrium. • This enzyme breaks down the protein material in the hypertrophied cells causing the uterine muscle cells to decrease in size • The uterus gradually decreases in size as the cells grow smaller

  8. Regeneration of the Endometrium • the placenta site heals in about 6 weeks with the other part healing in 3 weeks. • Heals by exfoliation rather than by forming scar tissue. • The endometrium grows from the margins of the placental site and from the fundi of the endometrial glands left in the basal layer of the placental site

  9. Critical Thinking Why does the uterus heal by Exfoliation and not by primary intention?

  10. Placement and size Where is the normal placement of the uterus immediately after birth, 12 hours later? What is the size of the uterus? Uterine Changes

  11. Uterus What nursing intervention should the nurse encourage PRIOR to assessing the fundus?

  12. What is the normal tone of the uterus? What is the technique used to assess the uterus? Uterine Changes

  13. Uterine Involution • What is the PRIORITY intervention when the uterus is found to be boggy? • Why is it important not to over-stimulate the uterus?

  14. Uterus • What interventions must the nurse include if the uterus is found deviated from midline?

  15. The nurse is going to assess the uterus. The 3 main assessments include: 1. 2. 3. The normal height of a first day postpartum woman is ________________. It should decrease _____fingerbreadth per _______. The tone should be __________. If found boggy, the nurse would ___________ the uterus. Short Answers

  16. What are the three types of lochia? What is a normal amount? What question is important to ask the woman when assessing amount? What is normal odor of Lochia? Lochia

  17. Should not be excessive in amount Should never have an offensive odor Should not contain large pieces of tissue Should not be absent during the first 3 weeks Should proceed from rubra -- serosa -- alba Characteristics of Lochia

  18. Lochia rubra Lochia serosa Lochia alba A. Pinkish serum with mucus and debris usually occurs on day 3 - 10. B. Creamy yellowish brownish. Occurs after day 10 C. Dark Red and consists mainly of blood. Occurs day 1 - 3. Match the Lochia

  19. Lochia should never be ______________ in amount. Lochia should never have an ______________odor. Lochia should not contain __________ _________ of tissue Lochia should not be _____________ during the first ________ weeks Lochia should proceed from _________ to _________ to ___________. Fill in the Blank

  20. Remains soft and flabby, appears bruised and may have some lacerations No longer does the external os have the pre-pregnant appearance -- now appears as a jagged slit not a circle. Cervix

  21. May be edematous and bruised. Rugae begin to appear when ovarian function returns. May teach the mom to do Kegels exercises to increase the blood flow to the area and aid in healing Vagina

  22. Assess: the episiotomy the same as with any incision. R – redness E – edema or swelling E – ecchymosis or bruising D – drainage A – approximated How should the nurse assess the perineum? Perineum

  23. What are measures to teach the mom in caring for the perineum?

  24. Comfort Measures • Relief of Perineal Discomfort • Ice packs • Topical agents • Perineal care • Sitz bath • Relief of hemorrhoidal discomfort may include • Sitz baths • Topical anesthetic ointments • Witch hazel pads

  25. Ovulation and Menstruation • When does Menstruation generally return? • Return is prolonged for the breastfeeding mom because of alterations in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone production.

  26. Ovulation and Menstruation • Nurses need to teach moms that breastfeeding is NOT a reliable means of contraception. WHY

  27. Allow the mother to assess her own breasts -- similar to doing a self-breast exam ask if feels any nodules, lumps ask if nipples are sore, reddened, blisters, cracks Assess nipples for everted, flat, inverted Teach to care for breasts according to whether they are breastfeeding or bottle feeding. Breasts

  28. Sucking of infant stimulates the nerves beneath skin of the areola to transmit messages to the hypothalamus Hypothalamus sends messages to the pituitary gland Anterior pituitary -- stimulates Prolactin to be released which is the ultimate stimulation for milk production Posterior pituitary -- releases Oxytocin which stimulates the contraction of the cells around the alveoli in the mammary glands. This causes milk to be propelled through the duct system to the infant. This is the “LET-DOWN” reflex. Felt as a tingling sensation Process of Lactation

  29. No soap on the nipples, wash in water wear supportive bra Breastfeeding tips: Most important is the “latch-on” Teach measures to assist with the infant getting the nipple and areola in the mouth Teach different positions to hold the baby No timing Relax to allow for “let-down” express colostrum on the nipples after feeding remember drops of colostrum are the same as ounces of milk -- if wetting 6 - 10 diapers / day, then must be getting enough to eat Breastfeeding Care

  30. Key is to teach the mother measures to decrease stimulation of the breasts Wear a tight-fitting bra or binder Do not express milk from the breasts Take shower with back to the warm water Ice packs Suppression of Lactation

  31. The Anterior pituitary stimulates the release of ___________________ which is responsible for _________ _____________________. The posterior pituitary gland releases ___________ which is responsible for the ______-__________ reflex. Fill in the Blank

  32. What are four important interventions to teach a mom who is bottle feeding to decrease stimulation of the breasts. 1. 2. 3. 4. Short Answers

  33. Cardiovascular System

  34. How does the body rid itself of excess Plasma volume? Blood Volume Increase for about 24-48 hours after delivery Increase in blood flow back to the heart when blood from the placenta unit returns to central circulation Extravascular interstitial fluid is moved into the vascular system / intravascular Leads to increased cardiac output mainly RT increase stroke volume. Cardiovascular System Changes

  35. Pregnancy WBC – elevated slightly to about 12,000 RBC – increase slightly to about 10 milion. Hemoglobin – stays about normal at ~ 12 g. Below 10 g = anemia Hemotocrit – lowers 33-39% RT hemodilution. If drops below 32- 35% = anemia Post Partum WBC – leukocytosis is common with values of 25,000 – 30,000 RT increased neutrophils RBC – return to normal Hgb. – normal to see a drop of about 1 gram Hct – normal to see a drop of about 2- 4 points and then a rise RT > loss of plasma than RBC death Platelets – drop and gradually rise Blood Values

  36. Assess for Thromboembolism During pregnancy, plasma fibrinogen (coagulation) increases, Mother’s body has the ability to form clots and prevent excessive bleeding. Plasminogen (lysis of clots) does not rise Hypercoagulable state and the woman is at a greater risk for thrombus formation. assess for homan’s sign

  37. Vital Signs • Temperature • A slight elevation of up to 100.40 may occur related to dehydration and increase basal body metabolism from exertion of labor and delivery. • After 24 hours, the temperature should be normal • A temperature greater than 100.40 suggests infection. • Blood Pressure • Should remain stable • Hypovolemia can indicate postpartum hemorrhage • Hypervolemia could indicate preeclampsia

  38. Vital Signs • Pulse • Bradycardia of 50 – 70 bpm is Normal • Tachcardia is not considered a normal occurrence and may indicate excessive blood loss • Respirations • Should remain stable and within normal range

  39. The woman’s vital signs are: T.100.8, P- 56, R – 16, B/P – 110/65. How would the nurse interpret these findings? What interventions are indicated? Critical Thinking

  40. The most common GI problem during postpartum is constipation – EXPLAIN. What teaching is important to assist in decreasing constipation? Gastrointestinal Tract

  41. What is the most common problem associated with the urinary system? Why be concerned? Urinary System

  42. A primigravida delivered 2 hours ago. The woman states she would like to go to the bathroom. What should the nurse do? The woman is unable to void. What should the nurse do next? Critical Thinking

  43. Afterpains • Who is more likely to experience afterbirth pains? Explain. • Relief of after pains • Positioning (prone position) • Analgesia administered an hour before breastfeeding • Encourage early ambulation - monitor for dizziness and weakness

  44. Most common problem is Sleep -- the excitement and exhilaration experienced by birth my make it difficult to sleep. They are tired and need rest. Allow for times of uninterrupted sleep. Exercises -- have the patient to ask her own doctor for specific exercises. Usually walking is safe. May eventually do postpartum exercises. Just need to allow the body to return to its pre-pregnant state before straining it. Rest and Activity

  45. Resumption of Activities • New mother should gradually increase activities and ambulation after birth • She should avoid heavy lifting, excessive stair climbing, strenuous activity • Resume light housekeeping by second week at home • Delay returning to work until after 6-week postpartum examination

  46. Exercises • Recommend exercise to provide health benefits to new mother • Nurse should encourage client to begin simple exercises while on nursing unit • Inform her that increased lochia and pain may necessitate a change in her activity

  47. Perineal pain -- caused from trauma during delivery, episiotomy, hemorrhoids. Provide comfort measures such as: sitz baths, Tucks, Sprays / Foams, oral analgesics. Afterbirth pain -- more common in multigravidas and breastfeeding moms. Treat with * mild analgesics (NSAIDS, Acetamenaphen),heating pad, lie on abdomen, discontinue use of oxytocins, Breast engorgement -- warm or cold packs, increase feedings, decrease stimulation. Bind breasts. Gas distention -- no ice, increase warm / hot fluids, increase walking, rocking chair, antiflatus drugs. Pain

  48. During shift assessment of the post partum mom’s peri pad, the nurse found it saturated with lochia rubra. What would be the priority nursing intervention? Decision Making

  49. Most moms are hungry and eager to eat. Start off slowly to avoid nausea and vomiting. Diet should include: High in Protein, vitamin C, and fiber Increase in fluids Lactating moms need about 700 extra calories for milk production Prenatal vitamins and iron supplements are often continued in the postpartum period. The Nutrition Need

  50. The responses of the mother to the birth of her infant are influenced by many factors such as: Her parents own birth -- parenting and nurturing Cultural background -- only by understanding and respecting the values and beliefs of each woman can the nurse plan and meet the patient’s needs Readiness for parenthood -- emotional maturity, pregnancy planned or unplanned, financial status, job status Freedom from discomfort -- physical condition Health of her newborn -- physical condition, prematurity, congenital defects Opportunities for parent- infant interactions Psychological Adjustment