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Job Analysis

Job Analysis

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Job Analysis

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  1. Job Analysis

  2. Related terms • Task: A distinct work activity which has an identifiable beginning and end. • Duty-Several tasks which are related by some sequence of events . • Position: A collection of tasks and duties which are performed by one person. • Job : One or more position within the organization • Job analysis- Systematic investigation into the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job. • Job Evaluation: The determination of the monetary worth of job to an organization. Job evaluation is usually a combination of an internal equity comparison of jobs and external job market comparison. • Job classification-The grouping or categorizing of jobs on some specified basis such as nature of work performed or the level of pay.

  3. Uses • Employment :Job analysis is useful as a guide in every phase of employment process like manpower planning, recruitment ,selections, placement ,orientation, induction and in performance appraisals as it gives information about duties, tasks and responsibilities. • Organization Audits: Job information obtained by job analysis often reveals instances of poor organization in terms of the factors affecting job design. The analysis process, therefore constitutes a kind of organization audit • Training and Development Programmes: Description of duties and equipments used is of great help in developing the content of training and development program. Needs of training and development are identified with job description.

  4. Uses • Performance Appraisal: Instead of rating an employee on characteristic such as dependability, there is now a tendency towards establishing job goals and appraising the work done towards those goals. In this type of appraisal Job description is useful in defining the areas in which job goals should be established. • Promotion and transfer: Job information helps in charting the channel of promotion and showing lateral lines of transfer

  5. Uses • Preventing dissatisfaction and settling complaints :Job information can be used as a standard in preventing and settling complains related to work load, nature of work, work procedures. • Discipline: Job information can be used as standard when discipline is been considered for standard performance. • Restriction of employment activity for health reasons and early retirement

  6. Uses • Wage and Salary administration- Job analysis is the basis for job evaluation • Health and safety:-Job description provides the information about the hazards and unhealthy conditions, accident prone areas in the job etc. It helps the management to provide health and safety measures. • Induction • Industrial relations.: If employees attempt tp add or delete from the ones listed in job description , the standard has been voilated , Labour unions and management both are interested in such matter.

  7. Contents • Job Analysis provides the following information • Job identification-The title of the job including the code number • Significant characteristics of a job: Its location ,physical setting, supervision, jurisdiction ,hazards and discomforts • What a typical worker does-Collection of information on specific operations and tasks to be performed

  8. Contents • Job duties-detailed list of duties along with probable frequency of occurrence of each duty • What material or equipment the worker uses. • How a job is performed • Required personal attributes • Job relationship-this include opportunity for advancement ,partners of promotions, essential corporation etc.

  9. Steps in job analysis • Collection of background information-organizational chart, class specifications and existing job description • Selection of representative position to be analyzed • Collection of job analysis data • Developing a Job description-contents of job in terms of functions, duties responsibilities, operations etc • Developing a job specification.-personal qualities ,traits, skills, knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done • Developing employee specification-physical qualification, educational qualification, experience requirement and human qualities lists for particular job in job specifications

  10. Techniques of job analysis • Interviews • Direct observation • Maintenance of records • Questionnaires • Critical incident technique( examples of successful or unsuccessful job behavior are mentioned and collected)

  11. Job design • The process of deciding on the content of a Job in terms of duties and responsibilities on the method to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques systems and procedures and on the relationship that should exists between the job holder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues. • The two important goals of job design are -To meet the organizational requirement such as higher productivity operational efficiency, quality of service etc. - To satisfy the needs of individual employee like interests challenges ,achievement or accomplishment etc. Finally the goal of the job design is to integrate the needs of the individual with the organizational requirement

  12. Approaches to Designing jobs • 1Engineering approach(F.W Taylor) • “The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task which is to be accomplished. This task specifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and exact time allowed for doing it”

  13. The principles offered by scientific management to job design • Work should be scientifically studied • Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient. • Employees selected for work should match to the demands of the Job • Employees should be trained to perform the job • Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job.

  14. 2.Humane Approach • The need to design jobs which are interesting and rewarding • In last two decades much work has been directed to changing jobs so that job incumbents can satisfy their needs for growth, recognition and responsibility • Herzberg's research popularized the notion of enhancing need satisfaction through what is called job enrichment.

  15. 2.Humane Approach • According to Herzberg there are two type of factors • - motivators like achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth • - Hygiene factor which ( which merely maintain the employees on the job and in the organization)like working conditions, organizational policies, interpersonal relationship, pay and job security • According to Herzberg the employee is dissatisfied with the job if the maintenance factors to the required degree are not introduced into the job, but the employees may not be satisfied even if if required maintanancefactors are provided

  16. The job characteristics Approach • The job characteristics theory of Hackman and Oldham states that employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. Hence they suggest that motivation, satisfaction and performance should be integrated in the job design. According to this approach ,job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions which are defined as follows • Skill variety-The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so that worker can use number of skills and talents • Task Identity-The degree to which job requires completion of whole and identifiable piece of work. • Task Significance –The degree to which the job has substantial impact on the lives or work of people. • Autonomy-The degree to which job provides substantial freedom, independence. • Feedback-the degree to which an individual requires direct and clear information about effectiveness of of his or her performance.

  17. Techniques for designing jobs- • Job rotation-Refers to the movement of an employee from one job to another • Job Enlargement • Job Enrichment

  18. Thank you