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Chapter 6: PHONICS

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Chapter 6: PHONICS

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  1. Chapter 6: PHONICS Jan Hughes

  2. WHAT • Phonics is the instruction of the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent • Decoding is the ability to convert a word from print to speech • Alphabetic Principle is the understanding that written letters represent spoken sounds and that sounds go together to make words

  3. PHONICS • Phonics is a method of instruction that teaches the relationship between letters and letter combinations (graphemes) in written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken language and how to use these relationships to read and spell words.

  4. SYSTEMATIC AND EXPLICIT PHONICS INSTRUCTION Systematic Phonics Instruction: teaches sound/spelling relationships in a logical instructional sequence Explicit Phonics Instruction: teaches concepts that are clearly explained and modeled

  5. PHONICS INSTRUCTION • Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction • Improves students’ reading and spelling in kindergarten and grade 1. • Improves students’ ability to comprehend • Helps prevent reading difficulties among at-risk students • Helps students who have difficulty learning to read

  6. APPROACHES TO PHONICS INSTRUCTION • Synthetic phonics • Transforming letters and letter combinations into sounds and then blending the sounds together to form words. • Analogy Phonics • Using a rime in a familiar word to identify an unfamiliar word having that same rime. • Example: use “ick” in a familiar word to teach unfamiliar words such as brick, trick etc. • Analytic Phonics • Identify familiar words and then introduce a sound/spelling relationship within that word. • Example: identify the middle sound of mat and use other words with this such as fan, tan, bag. • Embedded Phonics • Phonics instruction is embedded in the context of reading and writing experience. • These skills include using context, pictures, familiar word parts and the first and last letter of words.

  7. GOOD PHONICS INSTRUCTION • Develops understanding of the alphabetic principle (relationship between letters and sounds in words). • Incorporates phonemic awareness • Provides practice in reading words • Leads to automatic word recognition • Only one part of a comprehensive reading program

  8. Effective Instructional Techniques • Provide immediate corrective feedback and model correct response • Monitor students to make sure they are paying attention and responding correctly • Lively pacing to keep students attentive • Signaling to have students talk in unison

  9. PHONICS SCOPE AND SEQUENCE • Guidelines when evaluating a reading program • Should introduce sound/spelling that occur in most words • High-utility sound/spellings • Progress from simple to more complex • Single consonant and short vowel should be introduced early • Letters with easy to pronounce sounds first • Letters having similar sounds and shape should be separated

  10. GENERAL SEQUENCE FOR TEACHING PHONICS • When choosing a Reading program • Look for a systematic sequence • Single consonants/short vowel • Consonant diagraph • Long vowel with silent e (CVCe) • Y as a vowel • R-controlled vowels • Silent consonants • Vowel diagraphs • Variant vowel diagraphs/dipthongs

  11. DECODING REGULAR WORDS • Regular words are words in which each letter represents its more common sound • Struggling readers need to sound out words orally and move to recognizing words automatically • Words beginning with a continuous sound are easiest for students to blend (i.e. at and map) • Words with beginning stop sounds are harder to blend (i.e. dog and bag) • Start with the easiest to blend and then move on to harder blend words

  12. BLENDING ROUTINES • Sound by sound blending • Continuous blending • Whole word blending • Spelling-focused blending • Pages 181-182 examples

  13. AUTOMATIC WORD RECOGNITION • Several sub skills are required to develop word recognition • Being able to identify letters and sounds quickly • Being fluent in phonics decoding • must have the automatic word recognition skills for reading fluently, which is an essential skill for comprehension

  14. TEXT TYPES • Decodable Text • Reading practice material in which the majority of words are linked to phonics instruction using sound/spelling relationships and spelling patterns students have been taught • Predictable/patterned text • Repetitive or cumulative text patterns • Match text to illustrations • Authentic text • Literature trade books in different genres

  15. DECODABLE TEXT ANALYSIS • Wholly decodable words • Word that can be identified on the basis of sound/spelling relationships and spelling patterns previously taught • Irregular words • High frequency and story words that were taught previously • Non decodable words • Words that are not wholly decodable or previously taught sight words

  16. PHONOGRAMS • A phonogram is a letter or series of letters that stand for a sound, syllable, syllable part, or series of sounds • Phonograms should not be the sole focus of early reading instruction • Phonograms should build on knowledge gained from systematic and explicit phonics instruction • Knowing phonograms should be included in instruction • Knowing phonograms is a critical step to decoding chunks of words

  17. WORD WORK: ENCODING AND DECODING • Word sorting • Grouping words according to categories to show similarities or differences • Kinds of word sorts • Closed—teacher defines words and models sorting • Open—student defines words and pictures • Blind—teacher defines key word and calls out a word (students do not see). Students point to key word with same sound • Writing—teacher calls out word and student writes word below the key word that has the same sound/spelling pattern • Speed—closed, open, blind, writing are completed in a particular time frame

  18. WORD WORK: ENCODING AND DECODING • Elkonin boxes with letters • Helps develop phonemic awareness • Students segment words using chips to represent sounds • Helps bridge the connection between phonemes and graphemes • Word building • The effects on a word when changing one letter • Words are transformed by substituting, inserting, or deleting letters • Each word is different than the previous word by one letter

  19. WORD WORK: ENCODING AND DECODING • Dictation • Sound by sound dictation • Teacher dictates word to student one sound at a time • Whole word dictation • Students are prompted to think about the sounds they hear in the words and write the entire word

  20. WHY • Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read more effectively than nonsystematic phonics or no phonics instruction • National Reading Panel 2000

  21. WHY • Based on numerous studies, it has been confirmed that phonics instruction is the best and most efficient way to teach alphabetic principles • Less mental energy is used to decode the words and more energy can be devoted to comprehension

  22. WHEN TO TEACH • Phonics instruction has the greatest impact on beginning reader in kindergarten and first grade • Students who don’t master or become fluent in phonics skills by the end of first grade continue to struggle in the future in other areas of reading • Torgesen et. al. (2001) • Researchers suggest about two years of phonics instruction • Pacing is contingent on student mastery

  23. WHEN TO ASSESS AND INTERVENE • Intervention should begin in kindergarten and first grade as soon as a reading problem is identified through assessment • Assessment should include phonemic awareness, sound/spelling correspondence, decoding, and use of nonsense words

  24. OLDER STRUGGLING READERS • Intensive intervention is critical • Some weak readers will need basic phonics instruction and phonemic awareness • Some will need word attack skills • For older readers, assessment and instruction should include more advanced morphological and orthographic knowledge

  25. HOW? Integrated Picture Mnemonics • Letter-sound strategy • Letter names and sounds can be taught together • Teach/Model • Connect an integrated picture to the letter sound • make a copy of the picture. • Trace the letter and make it into a picture • Write the letter and connect it to the picture name • Practice and commit to memory .

  26. LESSON MODELS • Sound/Spelling Correspondence • Explicit Phonics • Phonograms • Decodable Text

  27. SOUND/SPELLING CORRESPONDENCE LESSON MODEL 1 • Teaches consonant diagraphs and short vowels • See pages 200-207 for lesson examples • Steps: • Phonemic awareness • Teach/model • Word work • Sound/spelling practice • Corrective feedback

  28. EXPLICIT PHONICS LESSON MODEL 2 • Reading and writing CVC, CCVC, CVCe words, vowel combinations, and phonograms • See pages 208-231for example lessons • Steps: • Phonemic awareness • Model • Lead • Check • Apply • Word work

  29. PHONOGRAMS LESSON MODEL 3 • Reading and writing words with phonograms • See pages 232-233 for lesson sample • Steps • Phonemic awareness • Introduce phonogram • Onset-rime blending • Application • Word work: word building

  30. DECODABLE TEXT MODEL LESSON 4 • Methods for reading decodable texts • See 236-239 for sample lesson • Steps: • Review irregular words • Introduce the book • Whole group read • First with whisper read, then with choral read • Individual turns • Respond to questions • Partner-read entire book

  31. CONCLUSION • WHAT: • The aim of phonics instruction is to help children acquire alphabetic knowledge and use it to read and spell words. --Ehri, 2006

  32. CONCLUSION • WHY: • The English language is an alphabetic language in which there are consistent though not entirely predictable relationships between letters and sounds • Anderson et al., 1985 • Phonics instruction increases the ability to comprehend text for beginning readers and older students with disabilities • National reading panel 2000

  33. CONCLUSION • WHEN? The right maxims for phonics are: Do it early. Keep it simple. Anderson et al., 1985

  34. CONCLUSION • HOW • Use lessons that are research based • Use the correct model for what you would like to teach • Keep it interesting! • Phonics instruction need not be boring, especially if the instruction is kept brisk, to the point, and does not take an excessive amount of time each day. • Stahl, Duffy-Hester & Stahl, 1998