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Themes of the 20th Century

Themes of the 20th Century

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Themes of the 20th Century

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  1. Themes of the 20th Century

  2. 1. New Technologies in Transportation and Communication

  3. 2. Tripling of the “Non West” Population

  4. 3. Decline of the West as a colonial power

  5. Communism Marxism New Nationalism Fundamentalism

  6. 4. New Ideologies challenge traditional orders

  7. 5. Accelerated Changes for women in the western world

  8. 6. Decreases in birthrates in the Industrialized/ Western World

  9. Country Govt. 1900 Govt. 2000 Germany monarchy Republic Russia monarchy Republic China Dynasty Communist Egypt Protectorate Republic India Colony Socialist Republic Vietnam Colony Communist Israel Colony Republic

  10. 7. Political and economic formation -nearly every country had a different form of government in 1900 than it does today

  11. 8. Changes in the power structure 1900 Landed Aristocracy 2000 Upper Middle Class

  12. Causes of World War I“The Great War”

  13. M A I N A T I O N A L I S M L L I A N CE S M P E R A L I S M I L I T A R I S M

  14. Causes of World War I M A I N

  15. Cause 1: Massive buildup of armies Obsession with security/product of nationalism Arms race Militarism

  16. Examples of… • Brit. and Ger. build massive navies.

  17. Cause 2: Europe was divided into 2 armed alliances Pledged absolute support System of Alliances • Created a domino effect

  18. Triple EntenteTriple Alliance Allies Central Powers Examples of… Germany Austria Ottoman Britain Russia France *Italy switches sides mid way through the war Serbia

  19. Triple Alliance/Central Powers Triple Entente/Allies Neutrals Ottoman

  20. Cause 3: Competition over acquiring colonies Portugal Spain Italy France Germany Belgium British Dutch Imperialism

  21. Examples of… • Scramble for Africa • Creating spheres of Influences in China

  22. Cause 4: Countries placing their own interest above cooperation Nation-states develop fierce rivalries Nationalism

  23. Examples of… -Ger. matching Brit. Indust. output -Southeast Europe (Balkans) • Three Empires claimed • it • Ethnic groups desired independence

  24. World War I Begins • June 28, 1914, Serb nationalist GavriloPrincep (member of the Black Hand society) assassinates Austrian Franz Ferdinand Don’t write next part – See your timeline + reading • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia • Russia sends troops to assist Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia & France • England enters on side of Russia & France • WW I is on!!

  25. Sarajevo To execute its initial plan, Germany declares war on France. France reciprocates

  26. Russia Britain Germany Austria-Hungary France Serbia Ottoman Empire What military dilemma do the Central Powers (red), especially Germany, face at the onset of war? Who should the Central Powers concentrate on first?

  27. Opening Stages of World War I German General Alfred Von Schlieffen Schlieffen Plan – German war plan • Attack France 1st then Russia German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II

  28. Russia Germany Britain Austria-Hungary Paris * France Serbia Ottoman Empire

  29. Rationale for Schlieffen Plan • France was the greater threat • Russia would be slower to mobilize (lack of RRs) • Avoid 2 Front War • Quickly end the war… • Hoping Britain remained neutral Fed romantic view: “War over by Christmas”

  30. What happened? Results • Belgium fighters slow Ger. advance • Britain enters war • Brit./ Fr. forces stop Ger. advance at Marne River

  31. Bloody Stalemate Along the Western Front *Stalemate = little to no gain for either side = deadlock • Conflict grinds to a halt • Sept. 1914 – Battle of the Marne “Taxi Cab Battle” • Protect Paris; stop Schlieffen Plan • Germans fail to advance; both sides dig in • Russia attacks in east= 2-front war for Germany

  32. War in the Trenches • 500 miles of trench • Gains are yards not miles • Miserable conditions • New tech = more death; machine gun, gas, tanks • Feb.-July 1916: Battles of Verdun and Somme = high losses for little gain

  33. What is Trench Warfare?

  34. War on the Eastern Front • CPs gain Advantage • Ger. & Aust. push Russians back • Russia’s War Efforts Weaken • Not industrialized – lacked necessities of war • Only advantage = large pop. for army

  35. Gallipoli Campaign against Ottomans 1915-16 • Failed Brit. & Fr. attempt to take Istanbul • Heavy Allied losses • 1st major Allied use of Aust. & New Zea. Troops • ** Strengthened Turkish nationalist movement

  36. Later Stages of WWI Russia - 1917 - Vladimir Lenin & Bolsheviks stage Communist Revolution – End Romanov dynasty - Formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) - Ends the “Tsar's War” Vladimir Lenin Tsar Nicholas II

  37. Brest-Litovsk Treaty = Soviet & Ger. agreement to end fighting. - Ger. gets western Russian lands

  38. 1918 – Last year of War Last Year of War = Military race - Allies = get Americans across Atlantic & into the fight, vs…. - Germany (CPs) = Transfer eastern troops to west to end war first

  39. Final German Push - Germans attempt to break Allied lines - Failed; Allied counterattack defeats Germans

  40. Allied Counterattack Ends War

  41. Allies Win! - Paris Peace Conference – Allies create treaties to deal with defeated CPs (1919-1920) - Conference divided between U.S. idealism (Pres. Wilson’s 14 Points) & European revenge

  42. Results of Conference - Austria-Hungary = 2 states - New nations formed - Ottoman Empire dismantled into Mandates - Mandate = territory whose control transferred from one country to another. - Established League of Nations goal = avoid future wars. - not military league - U.S. does not join.

  43. Soviet Union 3. What issues/conflicts are likely to emerge as a result of the new map created in 1919? 2. In what region of Europe did most of the changes take place?