Communism Marxism New Nationalism Fundamentalism
Country Govt. 1900 Govt. 2000 Germany monarchy Republic Russia monarchy Republic China Dynasty Communist Egypt Protectorate Republic India Colony Socialist Republic Vietnam Colony Communist Israel Colony Republic
7. Political and economic formation -nearly every country had a different form of government in 1900 than it does today
8. Changes in the power structure 1900 Landed Aristocracy 2000 Upper Middle Class
M A I N A T I O N A L I S M L L I A N CE S M P E R A L I S M I L I T A R I S M
Causes of World War I M A I N
Cause 1: Massive buildup of armies Obsession with security/product of nationalism Arms race Militarism
Examples of… • Brit. and Ger. build massive navies.
Cause 2: Europe was divided into 2 armed alliances Pledged absolute support System of Alliances • Created a domino effect
Triple EntenteTriple Alliance Allies Central Powers Examples of… Germany Austria Ottoman Britain Russia France *Italy switches sides mid way through the war Serbia
Triple Alliance/Central Powers Triple Entente/Allies Neutrals Ottoman
Cause 3: Competition over acquiring colonies Portugal Spain Italy France Germany Belgium British Dutch Imperialism
Examples of… • Scramble for Africa • Creating spheres of Influences in China
Cause 4: Countries placing their own interest above cooperation Nation-states develop fierce rivalries Nationalism
Examples of… -Ger. matching Brit. Indust. output -Southeast Europe (Balkans) • Three Empires claimed • it • Ethnic groups desired independence
World War I Begins • June 28, 1914, Serb nationalist GavriloPrincep (member of the Black Hand society) assassinates Austrian Franz Ferdinand Don’t write next part – See your timeline + reading • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia • Russia sends troops to assist Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia & France • England enters on side of Russia & France • WW I is on!!
Sarajevo To execute its initial plan, Germany declares war on France. France reciprocates
Russia Britain Germany Austria-Hungary France Serbia Ottoman Empire What military dilemma do the Central Powers (red), especially Germany, face at the onset of war? Who should the Central Powers concentrate on first?
Opening Stages of World War I German General Alfred Von Schlieffen Schlieffen Plan – German war plan • Attack France 1st then Russia German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II
Russia Germany Britain Austria-Hungary Paris * France Serbia Ottoman Empire
Rationale for Schlieffen Plan • France was the greater threat • Russia would be slower to mobilize (lack of RRs) • Avoid 2 Front War • Quickly end the war… • Hoping Britain remained neutral Fed romantic view: “War over by Christmas”
What happened? Results • Belgium fighters slow Ger. advance • Britain enters war • Brit./ Fr. forces stop Ger. advance at Marne River
Bloody Stalemate Along the Western Front *Stalemate = little to no gain for either side = deadlock • Conflict grinds to a halt • Sept. 1914 – Battle of the Marne “Taxi Cab Battle” • Protect Paris; stop Schlieffen Plan • Germans fail to advance; both sides dig in • Russia attacks in east= 2-front war for Germany
War in the Trenches • 500 miles of trench • Gains are yards not miles • Miserable conditions • New tech = more death; machine gun, gas, tanks • Feb.-July 1916: Battles of Verdun and Somme = high losses for little gain
War on the Eastern Front • CPs gain Advantage • Ger. & Aust. push Russians back • Russia’s War Efforts Weaken • Not industrialized – lacked necessities of war • Only advantage = large pop. for army
Gallipoli Campaign against Ottomans 1915-16 • Failed Brit. & Fr. attempt to take Istanbul • Heavy Allied losses • 1st major Allied use of Aust. & New Zea. Troops • ** Strengthened Turkish nationalist movement
Later Stages of WWI Russia - 1917 - Vladimir Lenin & Bolsheviks stage Communist Revolution – End Romanov dynasty - Formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) - Ends the “Tsar's War” Vladimir Lenin Tsar Nicholas II
Brest-Litovsk Treaty = Soviet & Ger. agreement to end fighting. - Ger. gets western Russian lands
1918 – Last year of War Last Year of War = Military race - Allies = get Americans across Atlantic & into the fight, vs…. - Germany (CPs) = Transfer eastern troops to west to end war first
Final German Push - Germans attempt to break Allied lines - Failed; Allied counterattack defeats Germans
Allies Win! - Paris Peace Conference – Allies create treaties to deal with defeated CPs (1919-1920) - Conference divided between U.S. idealism (Pres. Wilson’s 14 Points) & European revenge
Results of Conference - Austria-Hungary = 2 states - New nations formed - Ottoman Empire dismantled into Mandates - Mandate = territory whose control transferred from one country to another. - Established League of Nations goal = avoid future wars. - not military league - U.S. does not join.
Soviet Union 3. What issues/conflicts are likely to emerge as a result of the new map created in 1919? 2. In what region of Europe did most of the changes take place?