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Chapter 10

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  1. Chapter 10 Problems and Issues in Fitness

  2. Chronic Illness Related to Sedentary Lifestyles in America • 12.6 million people have coronary artery disease • 1.1 million suffer a heart attack each year • 16 million have diabetes • 50 million have hypertension • 58 million adults are obese

  3. Fitness Behavior • Health fitness requires exercise of sufficient intensity, duration, and frequency • The MVPA should total 210 minutes per week • Commitment to sustain involvement is necessary • Figure 10.1 illustrates a “Stairway to Lifetime Fitness” example, moving from dependence to independence (Corbin & Lindsey, 1993)

  4. Media and Fitness Information • Part of the problem is the media creates false impressions about fitness issues • Skinner (1988) has identified 3 general medical problems: • A young fit body does not represent a healthy lifestyle • Miracles usually do not occur with fitness concepts • Celebrities are not experts in fitness • The computer age provides another outlet to receive fitness information and asking questions to fitness experts

  5. Equity Issues in Fitness • Females were less active than males • Blacks and Hispanics were less active than Whites • Young people from low income families were less active than the middle/upper income families • Obesity is more prevalent in women than men Opportunity for physical activity and fitness is not a level playing field in the United States

  6. Guidelines for Fitness Testing (Pate, 1994) • Testing should be used to identify at-risk children, but privacy should be respected • Award systems should be based on criterion-referenced standards vs. norm-based • Accumulated activity, as well as performance fitness tests, should be part of the evaluation process • Self testing can reduce the side effects of mass fitness testing • Purpose of testing should be for “diagnosis, providing feedback, setting goals, and charting improvements”

  7. Fitness and Aging • Everyday 4,000 Americans celebrate their 65th birthday • The important issue should be maintaining productive living capacity and enjoyment • Exercise can control the onset of aging • Some research has shown that older adults have attitudes towards exercise that will make it highly unlikely for later participation

  8. Fitness and Aging, cont’d • The following needs for seniors should be: • Better information regarding the benefits of exercise • More appropriate programs for seniors • More publicity for senior role models

  9. Sports Participation and Healthy Behavior • Sport participations eat more fruits and vegetables daily • Participation of three or more sessions of exercise is common • Among males, the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco decreases • Among females, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, sexual intercourse, or suicide attempts were decreased

  10. Chapter 10 Problems and Issues in Fitness