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Aluminum

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Aluminum

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  1. Aluminum Metal of the 21st Century

  2. Al facts • 8.13 wt.% of the crust • Weighs about 1/3 of Cu or Fe • Malleable, ductile, easily cast and machined, corrosion resistant • Excellent conductor of electricity

  3. History of Discovery • Rubies and Sapphires • Corundum • 1809 recognized as alumina • 1825 Al isolated value>>> Au • 1886 Electrolytic process developed • Charles Hall U.S. • Paul Heroult France

  4. History Con’d • 1886 Chemical process of cleaning bauxite –Karl Bayer Austria • 1947 First Al foil

  5. Uses of Al • Packaging • Transportation • Building • Electrical wires • Al compounds • Petroleum industry, refractories, grinding and polishing, synthetic jewels

  6. Ore Mineral of Al

  7. Major producers of bauxite • Producers in 2006

  8. Bauxite mining in Suriname

  9. Al Producers • 2001 • 2006

  10. Bayer Process • 1888 • From the World Al institute • http://www.world-aluminium.org/production/refining/chemistry.html

  11. Al Smelting • Hall-Heroult • Al Institute

  12. What do we need to make one pound of Al? • 4 # of bauxite ore • Yields • 2# of alumina • Yields • 1# of Al

  13. Environmental Problems • Red mud from Bayer process • F from electrolysis

  14. Bauxite Reserves • 1985 21 billion ton • 1990 21.8 billion ton • 1993 23 billion ton • 2006 25 billion ton

  15. Rate of use in 2006 • 177 million tons per year • How long will the reserves last? • Answer: about 141 years

  16. Your homework • By Thursday I would like you to come up with an estimate of how much it costs to produce a ton of Al----you will need to look up data on the web or in books in the library but for this, usually the web is better

  17. Al Recycling in the U.S.

  18. In Class Problem • 1990-2000: recycled about 1.55 million T of Al from old scrap • 2000-2006: drops to about 1.1 million • What does this save the U.S. in electricity??

  19. Data Needed • Production of 1# of Al uses approximately 10 kwh of elec • There are about 2200# in a metric T • The average cost for industrial electricity in the U.S. in 2006 was 6.11 cents/kwh • Takes 5% of the energy to remelt old scrap as it does to produce new Al