Chapter 14 Bites and Stings
Animal and Human Bites • Determine if victim was exposed to rabies. • Spread through saliva by bite or lick • Consider rabies if • Animal attacked without provocation • Animal was behaving strangely • High-risk species • Animal should be captured or confined for observation. • Report animal bites to police or animal control.
Care for Animal andHuman Bites • Clean wound with soap and water. • Flush wound under pressure. • Control bleeding and cover wound with sterile dressing. • Seek medical care for cleaning, tetanus shot, or rabies vaccination.
Poisonous species in United States Rattlesnake Water moccasin Coral snake Copperhead Snake Bites
Severe burning pain Fang marks Swelling Discoloration and blood-filled blisters Nausea, vomiting, sweating, weakness Recognizing a Pit Viper Bite
Get victim away from snake. Keep victim calm; limit movement. Wash area with soap and water. Stabilize extremity. Seek medical care. Care for Pit Viper Bite
Coral Snake Bite • Recognizing Coral Snake Bite • Most venomous snake • Has short fangs and tends to hang on and chew venom into the victim • Care for Coral Snake Bite • Get victim away from snake. • Keep victim calm and limit movement. • Wash with soap and water. • Apply mild pressure and bandage. • Call 9-1-1.
Nonpoisonous Snake Bites • Recognizing Nonpoisonous Snake Bites • Horseshoe-shaped bites • Painful local reactions; no systemic symptoms • Care for Nonpoisonous Snake Bites • Get victim away from snake. • Wash with soap and water. • Apply antibiotic ointment and cover wound. • Seek medical care.
Insect Stings • Recognizing an Insect Sting • Signs of insect stings: pain, itching, and swelling • Signs of anaphylaxis • Difficulty breathing • Tightness in chest • Rash or hives • Swelling in mouth or throat • Dizziness and nausea
Care for an Insect Sting • Remove stinger and venom sac. • Wash with soap and water. • Apply ice. • Consider topical steroid, pain medication, or antihistamine. • Assist with prescribed epinephrine kit. • Call 9-1-1 for signs of severe allergic reaction.
Black Widow Sharp pinprick, then dull pain Two fang marks Abdominal pain, headache, fever, dizziness, nausea Spider Bites (1 of 2)
Brown Recluse Local reaction Bull’s-eye pattern Headache, fever, weakness, nausea Spider Bites (2 of 2)
Care for All Spider Bites • Catch spider for identification. • Wash with soap and water or rubbing alcohol. • Apply ice to relieve pain and delay effects of venom. • Seek medical care.
Scorpion Stings • Recognizing a Scorpion Sting • Local immediate pain and burning, followed by numbness and tingling • Care for Scorpion Sting • Wash with soap and water or rubbing alcohol. • Apply ice. • Seek medical care.
Remove with tweezers. Wash with soap and water. Apply rubbing alcohol. Apply ice. Calamine lotion. Seek medical care for rash. Tick Bites
Marine Animal Injuries (1 of 3) • Marine Animals That Bite, Rip, and Puncture • Shark • Barracuda • Eel • Care for Bites, Rips, or Punctures • Control bleeding. • Care for shock. • Call 9-1-1.
Marine Animal Injuries (2 of 3) • Marine Animals That Sting • Jellyfish • Portuguese man-o-war • Care for Stings • Scrape off tentacles. • Apply vinegar.
Marine Animal Injuries (3 of 3) • Marine Animals That Puncture by Spines • Stingray • Care for Puncture by Spines • Immerse in hot water. • Wash with soap and water. • Flush area. • Care for wound.