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PY 101 Semester Review

PY 101 Semester Review

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PY 101 Semester Review

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  1. PY 101SemesterReview

  2. Psychological Perspectives on Human Behavior • Examination of human behavior and experience from a psychological perspective. • Application of psychological principles to understanding human behavior. (3 hrs)

  3. Grading Scale 100 – 92% A 91 – 80% B 79 - 70% C 69 - 60% D 59% and below F

  4. History & Roots • Wilhelm Wundt • Edward Titchener • William James • John Watson • B. F. Skinner • Sigmund Freud • The Gestaltists • The Humanists

  5. Sigmund Freud Founded psychoanalysis, focused on unconscious thoughts in determining behavior.

  6. Freudian Theory Personality components • Id: Concerned with drive satisfaction, provides the motive power; follows the pleasure principle (the horse) • Ego: Rational thought; controls & channels id; follows the reality principle (the rider) • Superego: Oversees balance between ego & id; internalized parental control; much like a conscience

  7. According to Freud’s theory, People are born into the world with which of these? • ID • EGO • Superego • Collective Unconscious

  8. According to Freud’s theory, People are born into the world with which of these? • ID • EGO • Superego • Collective Unconscious

  9. Carl Jung Personality Theory: • Ego • Personal Unconscious: Like a combination of Freud's preconscious and unconscious • Collective Unconscious: Inherited tendencies to respond in a particular way (archetypes) shared by all humans

  10. Alfred Adler • Humans motivated by the need to overcome inferiority and strive for significance • Inferiority Complex: Adler's term for feelings of inferiority that interfere with development

  11. Karen Horney • Stressed need for safety & satisfaction • Childhood frustration may lead to development of basic anxiety & neurosis Tyranny of the Should:Horney's term for focusing on an unrealistic, perfect self-image that leads to dissatisfaction

  12. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to attribute psychological problems to the unconscious? • A. FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Skinner

  13. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to attribute psychological problems to the unconscious? FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Skinner

  14. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to attribute human motivation to striving for superiority? • A. FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Adler

  15. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to attribute human motivation to striving for superiority? • A. FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Adler

  16. Research • Search for Respect • Scientific methods

  17. Science & Proof • A deduction is proven if the general premise is true and the logic is valid. • An induction goes beyond the known data, and thus can never be proven. Science, then does not prove things, because all information about the outside observable world is inductive.

  18. Research methods • Naturalistic Observation • Laboratory Observation • Case Studies • Surveys • Experiments • Experiments of Nature

  19. Correlation The Correlation Co-efficient HIGHER Low High -1 0 1

  20. Whitney realized that the less time she spent partying, the better her grades were. This would be a(n) ________ correlation. • A. interestingB. zeroC. positiveD. negative

  21. Whitney realized that the less time she spent partying, the better her grades were. This would be a(n) ________ correlation. • A. interestingB. zeroC. positiveD. negative

  22. Experiments • Involve random assignment and controlled manipulation • Causal claims possible • Independent variables manipulated by E • Dependent variables supposedly affected by independent variables • Experimental groups get the different values of the independent variables. Control groups do not.

  23. Dr. Tyler provides relaxation training to half of the Pauline tennis team prior to the national Championships. After the matches she compares the points the athletes were assigned for their performances. In this study, the points are the • A. variable.B. independent variable.C. dependent variable.D. operationalized factor.

  24. Dr. Tyler provides relaxation training to half of the Pauline tennis team prior to the national Championships. After the matches she compares the points the athletes were assigned for their performances. In this study, the points are the • A. variable.B. independent variable.C. dependent variable.D. operationalized factor.

  25. Biology • Neurotransmitters • Brain Functioning • Balances

  26. The Neuron

  27. Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine: important for learning, memory, muscle movement • Serotonin: influences mood and regulates food intake • Dopamine: important to movement and to frontal lobe activity • GABA: important in inhibiting neural activity • Norepinephrine: maintains alertness & wakefulness • Endorphins: regulate firing of pain neurons

  28. Synapse • Tiny gap between an axon terminal & another neuron (or specialized cell). • Firing neurons release neurotransmitters that cross the synapse. • Synaptic Vesicles: • Hold the neurotransmitter. • Neural firing drives them to the synapse, where they release their chemicals.

  29. Chemical compounds that facilitate sending signals from one neuron to another are called • A. axons.B. dendrites.C. neurotransmitters.D. synapses.

  30. Chemical compounds that facilitate sending signals from one neuron to another are called • A. axons.B. dendrites.C. neurotransmitters.D. synapses.

  31. Human Development • Child • Adolescent • Adult

  32. Piaget’s Theory • Assimilation Fitting new objects, events, etc. into an existing schema • Accommodation Modifying a schema to fit new events, objects, etc.

  33. Piaget’s Stages • Sensorimotor (0-2 years) • Preoperations (2-7 years) • Concrete Operations (7-12 years) • Formal Operations (12 and up)

  34. Adolescent Cognition • Grasp theoretical math • Understand religious & political philosophy • Decipher metaphors & analogies.

  35. Imaginary Audience The strong focus on self leads adolescents to feel that everyone else is focused on them as well

  36. Personal Fable Adolescents assume their thoughts and feelings are unique (no one has ever loved so deeply, etc.)

  37. During the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development of Piaget's theory: • A. the child becomes adept at using words, images, and symbols to represent the world.B.infants and toddlers rely on their sensory and motor skills to acquire practical knowledge about the world.C. the child acquires the principle of conservation.D. the child uses logic to systematically solve problems.

  38. During the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development of Piaget's theory: • A. the child becomes adept at using words, images, and symbols to represent the world.B. infants and toddlers rely on their sensory and motor skills to acquire practical knowledge about the world.C. the child acquires the principle of conservation.D. the child uses logic to systematically solve problems.

  39. Erickson’s Stages Stage Age Trust vs. Mistrust 0-1 Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt 1-3 Initiative vs. Guilt 3-6 Industry vs. Inferiority 6-Puberty Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adult Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle-Age Integrity vs. Despair Old Age

  40. Life Course in Women 1) No children phase 2) Starting a family-preschool phase 3) School-age phase 4) Adolescent phase 5) Launching phase 6) Postparental phase (Reinke, Ellicott, & Harris, 1985)

  41. Later Adulthood • Some physical and sensory decline is common • Exercise slows physical decline dramatically • Continued sexual activity common among those over 80

  42. Intelligence & Aging • Intellectual abilities peak in the mid-40's • Intellectual decline generally doesn't set in until the mid-60's, and is modest until the 80's

  43. Later Adulthood • Only 13% of those over 65 are below the poverty line • The majority of people view retirement positively • Losing a spouse increases both mortality and suicide rates

  44. The Kübler-Ross Stages of Dying 1) Denial and Isolation 2) Anger 3) Bargaining 4) Depression 5) Acceptance

  45. In Kohlberg's theory, each level of moral reasoning is based on the: • A. degree to which a person obeys the law.B. degree to which a person avoids morally ambivalent situations.C. person's level of egocentrism.D. degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards in society.

  46. In Kohlberg's theory, each level of moral reasoning is based on the: • A. degree to which a person obeys the law.B. degree to which a person avoids morally ambivalent situations.C. person's level of egocentrism.D. degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards in society.

  47. Personality • Who am I? • Knowing others and how to interact • Assessment

  48. Trait Theories • Explain differences between people in terms of stable personality traits • Modern day psychologists have found 5 personality dimensions that span cultures

  49. Behaviorist Theory Behavior determined by: • Reward • Punishment • Classical conditioning