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Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY Third Edition

Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY Third Edition

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Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY Third Edition

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  2. Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation • The cheetah, whose capacity for aerobic metabolism makes it one of the fastest animals Chapter 14

  3. 14.1 Superoxide Anions • Superoxide anions (.O2-) (a by-product of oxygen metabolism) can cause cell damage • Superoxide dismutase catalyzes the very fast dismutation of 2 superoxide anions • 2 .O2- + 2H+ H2O2 + O2 • Catalase decomposes the hydrogen peroxide • 2 H2O2 2 H2O + O2 Chapter 14

  4. Fig 14.1 Coupled electron transport reactions catalyzed by NADPH oxidase • Superoxide anions can be formed by an NADPH-dependent enzyme in plasma membranes (via a short electron transport chain shown below) • NADPH + 2 O2 NADP+ + 2 .O2- + H+ 2 O2 2 .O2- Chapter 14

  5. 14.2 Cytochrome P450 • Cyt P450 is a hydroxylase (monooxygenase) that catalyzes the incorporation of an oxygen atom (derived from O2) into an organic molecule • Involved in many reactions: hydroxylations, oxidations, epoxidations, dealkylations • Xenobiotics (foreign compounds such as drugs, anaesthetics, dyes pesticides) are substrates for cytochrome P450 Chapter 14

  6. RH + O2 + NADPH + H+ ROH + H2O + NADP+ Eukaryotic cytochrome P450 • Cyt P450 is part of a two enzyme sequence that includes a flavoprotein dehydrogenase • Dehydrogenase contains both FMN and FAD • Overall reaction: hydroxylation of substrate RH Chapter 14

  7. Fig 14.2 Mammalian cytochrome P450 is an integral membrane protein • Globular heme domain (blue shere) • One or two transmembrane peptides Chapter 14

  8. 14.3 Hydrogenase and Fumarate Reductase Fig 14.3 Sugar fermentation by C. pasteurianum. The transfer of electrons from reduced ferridoxin (Fdred) to H+ is catalyzed by hydrogenase Chapter 14

  9. Fumarate Reductase • E. coli can use fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor when growing anaerobically • Fumarate reductase reaction is reverse of succinate dehydrogenase reaction • Oxidation-reduction enzyme cofactors are aligned in the sequence below: (QD and QP are menaquinone molecules) • QD-QP-[3Fe-4S]-[4Fe-4S]-[2Fe-2S]-FAD Chapter 14

  10. Fig 14.4 Menaquinone (abbreviated Q) Chapter 14

  11. 14.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria • Reduced coenzymes NADH and QH2 from: • (1) Aerobic oxidation of pyruvate by the citric acid cycle • (2) Oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids • Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which NADH and QH2 are oxidized and ATP is formed Chapter 14

  12. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (1) Respiratory electron-transport chain (ETC) Series of enzyme complexes embedded in the innermitochondrialmembrane, which oxidize NADH and QH2. Oxidation energy is used to transport protons creating a protongradient (2) ATP synthase uses the proton gradient energy to produce ATP Chapter 14

  13. Overview of oxidative phosphorylation Fig 14.5 Chapter 14

  14. 14.5 The Mitochondrion • Final stages of aerobic oxidation of biomolecules in eukaryotes occur in the mitochondrion • Site of citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation which generate reduced coenzymes • Contains electron transport chain to oxidize reduced coenzymes Chapter 14

  15. Fig 14.6 Structure of the mitochondrion Chapter 14

  16. Fig 14.6 (continued) Chapter 14

  17. Location of mitochondrial complexes • Innermitochondrialmembrane: Electron transport chain ATP synthase • Mitochondrialmatrix: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Enzymes of the citric acid cycle Enzymes catalyzing fatty acid oxidation Chapter 14

  18. 14.6 The Chemiosmotic Theory • Proposed by Peter Mitchell in the 1960’s • (Nobel Prize 1978) • Chemiosmotic theory: • A proton concentration gradient serves as the energy reservoir for driving ATP formation Chapter 14

  19. Respiration by mitochondria • Oxidation of substrates is coupled to the phosphorylation of ADP • Respiration (consumption of oxygen) proceeds only when ADP is present • The amount of O2 consumed depends upon the amount of ADP added Chapter 14

  20. Fig 14.7 Coupled nature of respiration in mitochondria (a) O2 consumed only with ADP, excess Pi (b) (+) Uncoupler DNP (O2 consumed without ADP) Chapter 14

  21. Uncouplers • Uncouplers stimulate the oxidation of substrates in the absenceofADP • Uncouplers are lipid-soluble weak acids • Both acidic and basic forms can cross the inner mitochondrial membrane • Uncouplers deplete any proton gradient by transporting protons across the membrane Chapter 14

  22. Fig 14.8 2,4-Dinitrophenol: an uncoupler • Because the negative charge is delocalized over the ring, both the acid and base forms of DNP are hydrophobic enough to dissolve in the membrane Chapter 14

  23. Mitchell’s postulates for chemiosmotic theory 1. Intact inner mitochondrial membrane is required (to maintain a proton gradient) 2. Electron transport through the ETC generates a proton gradient (pumps H+ from the matrix to the intermembrane space) 3. The membrane-spanning enzyme, ATP synthase, catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP in a reaction driven by movement of H+ across the inner membrane into the matrix Chapter 14

  24. 14.7 The Protonmotive Force • Protonmotive force (Dp) is the energy of the proton concentration gradient • Protons that are translocated into the intermembrane space by electron transport, flow back into the matrix via ATP synthase • H+ flow forms a circuit (similar to an electrical circuit) Chapter 14

  25. Fig 14.9 Analogy of electromotive and protonmotive force Chapter 14

  26. Free-energy change from proton movement 1. Chemical contribution DGchem = nRT ln ([H+]in / [H+]out) (n = number of protons translocated) 2. Electrical contribution: Dy=membrane potential DGelect = zFDy (z = charge (1.0 for H+), F =96,485 JV-1mol-1 ) Chapter 14

  27. Protonmotive force (Dp) • From the two previous equations the protonmotive force (Dp) is: Dp = Dy - (0.059 V) DpH • Dy = difference in charge across the membrane (V) in volts (DY = DYin - DYout) • DpH = pHin - pHout Chapter 14

  28. 14.8 Overview of Electron Transport • Five oligomeric assemblies of proteins associated with oxidative phosphorylation are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane • Complexes I-IV contain multiple cofactors, and are involved in electron transport • Complex V is ATP synthase Chapter 14

  29. Table 14.1 Chapter 14

  30. A. Complexes I-IV • Electrons flow through the ETC components in the direction of increasingreductionpotentials • NADH (strong reducing agent, Eo’ = -0.32 volts)O2(terminal oxidizing agent, Eo’ = +0.82 volts) • Mobile coenzymes: ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c serve as links between ETC complexes • Complex IV reduces O2 to water Chapter 14

  31. Fig 14.10 Mitochondrial electron transport Chapter 14

  32. Table 14.2 Chapter 14

  33. Table 14.3 Chapter 14

  34. Inhibitors can block electron transfer through specific complexes in the ETC • Complex I: blocked by rotenone • Complex III: blocked by antimycin A • Complex IV: blocked by cyanide Chapter 14

  35. Electrons enter the ETC two at a time via NADH • Flavin coenzymes are then reduced • (Complex I) FMN FMNH2 • (Complex II) FAD FADH2 • FMNH2 and FADH2 donate one electron at a time • All subsequent steps proceed by one e- transfers B. Cofactors in Electron Transport Chapter 14

  36. Mobile electron carriers 1. Ubiquinone (Q)Q is a lipid soluble molecule that diffuses within the lipid bilayer, accepting electrons from I and II and passing them to III 2. Cytochrome cAssociated with the outer face of the membrane, transports electrons from III to IV Chapter 14

  37. 14.9 Complex I • NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NADH dehydrogenase) • Transfers electrons from NADH to Q • NADH transfers a two electrons as a hydride ion (H:-) to FMN • Electrons are passed through Complex I to Q via FMN and iron-sulfur proteins Chapter 14

  38. Fi. 14.11 Electron transfer and proton flow in Complex I • Reduction of Q to QH2 requires 2 e- • About 4 H+ translocated per 2 e- transferred Chapter 14

  39. 14.10 Complex II • Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (or succinate dehydrogenase complex) • Accepts electrons from succinate and catalyzes the reduction of Q to QH2 • FAD of II is reduced in a 2-electron transfer of a hydride ion from succinate Chapter 14

  40. Fig 14.12 Electron transfer in Complex II • Complex II does not contribute to proton gradient, but supplies electrons from succinate Chapter 14

  41. 14.11 Complex III • Ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase • Transfers electrons to cytochrome c • Oxidation of one QH2 is accompanied by the translocation of 4 H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane • Two H+ are from the matrix, two from QH2 Chapter 14

  42. Fig 14.13 Electron transfer and proton flow in Complex III • Four H+ are translocated, two from the matrix and two from QH2 Chapter 14

  43. Proposed Q cycle. • Proposal for electron movement between between QH2 and cytochrome c in Complex III • One e- transferred to cytochrome c via the Fe-S protein • Second e- transferred to cytochrome b then Q • Three forms of Q are involved: QH2, Q and the semiquinone anion .Q- Chapter 14

  44. Fig 14.14 Q cycle: Step 1 Chapter 14

  45. Q cycle: Step 2 Chapter 14

  46. Q cycle: Step 3 Chapter 14

  47. 14.12 Complex IV • Cytochrome c oxidase • Catalyzes a four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O) • Source of electrons is cytochrome c(links Complexes III and IV) • Translocates H+ into the intermembrane space Chapter 14

  48. Fig 14.15 Electron transfer and proton flow in Complex IV • Iron atoms (hemes of cyt a) and copper atoms are both reduced and oxidized as electrons flow Chapter 14

  49. Net effect is transfer of four H+ for each pair of e- O2 + 4 e- + 4H+ 2 H2O 1. Proton translocation of 2 H+ for each pair of electrons transferred (each O atom reduced) 2. Formation of H2O removes 2H+ from the matrix (contributes to Dp even though no proton translocation occurs) Complex IV contributes to the proton gradient Chapter 14

  50. Fig 14.16 Proposed mechanism for reduction of molecular oxygen by cytochrome oxidase Chapter 14