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Principles of Organic and Biochemistry

Principles of Organic and Biochemistry

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Principles of Organic and Biochemistry

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  1. Principles of Organic and Biochemistry Ellen J. Wilson, RPh, PhD College of Southern Maryland

  2. FriedrickWÖhler is the “father” of organic chemistry

  3. What is Organic Chemistry? carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen phosphorus sulfur halogens

  4. Topics in CHE1230Hydrocarbons • Compounds that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen • Also called alkanes • Methane CH4 • Ethane CH3CH3 • Propane CH3CH2CH3 • Are called saturatedalkanes

  5. Look Back to CHE1200

  6. Saturated Hydrocarbons

  7. Topics in CHE1230Hydrocarbons • Some alkanes are cyclic—cycloalkanes • Cyclopropane C3H6 • Cylcobutane C4H8 • Cyclopentane C5H10 • Cyclohexane C6H12

  8. Cycloalkanes

  9. Another View of Cycloalkanes

  10. Topics in CHE1230Hydrocarbons • Some alkanes are substituted • Can have other hydrocarbon groups or halogens on them in place of hydrogen

  11. Topics in CHE1230Hydrocarbons • Some hydrocarbons are unsaturated • Have double bonds or triple bonds in place of hydrogen in some places

  12. Look Back to CHE1200 • REMEMBER--- • Carbon satisfies the octet rule by forming 4 bonds • Hydrogen satisfies the duet rule by forming 1 bond Ethane Ethene Ethyne CH3CH3 CH2CH2 CHCH alkane alkene alkyne

  13. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

  14. Topics in CHE1230Hydrocarbons • Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also be substituted

  15. Topics in CHE1230Hydrocarbons • There is a special class of hydrocarbons called aromatic hydrocarbons • They are cyclic and unsaturated • Benzene is an example C6H6

  16. Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  17. Topics in CHE1230Oxygen-Containing Compounds Alcohols contain hydrocarbons plus an OH (hydroxyl) group

  18. Topics in CHE1230Oxygen-Containing Compounds Phenols contain a benzene ring plus an OH group

  19. Topics in CHE1230Oxygen-Containing Compounds Thiols contain an SH (sulfhydryl) group in place of the OH (hydroxyl) group

  20. Topics in CHE1230Oxygen-Containing Compounds Ethers contain a hydrocarbon group on either side of an oxygen

  21. Topics in CHE1230Oxygen-Containing Compounds Aldehydes and ketones contain carbon double bonded to oxygen

  22. Topics in CHE1230Oxygen-Containing Compounds Carboxylic acids contain carbon double bonded to oxygen with an OH (hydroxyl) group in place of one hydrogen

  23. Topics in CHE1230Carbohydrates • What are carbohydrates? • Sugars • Specialized oxygen-containing compounds • Can be • Monosaccharides (simple sugars) • Disaccharides • Polysaccharides (starch)

  24. Carbohydrates

  25. Topics in CHE1230Amines and Amides • Compounds that contain nitrogen • Amines can be primary, secondary, or tertiary

  26. Topics in CHE1230Amines and Amides • Amides contain carbon double bonded to oxygen plus an NH group

  27. Topics in CHE1230Lipids • What are lipids? • FATS!!!!! • Another type of oxygen-containing molecule • A combination of long hydrocarbon and a carboxylic acid • Fats can be saturated or unsaturated

  28. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

  29. What is Biochemistry? Biochemistry is the application of chemistry—both organic and inorganic— to living organisms

  30. Topics in CHE1230Proteins • The nitrogen-containing compounds in your body are proteins • They are very large molecules • They are made of specialized molecules called amino acids

  31. Enzymes are specialized proteins

  32. Topics in CHE1230Molecular Genetics • DNA • RNA

  33. Topics in CHE1230Metabolism • What happens to the foods you eat? • Carbohydrate metabolism • Glycolysis • Citric acid cycle • Oxidative phosphorylation and electrontransport

  34. Topics in CHE1230Metabolism • What happens to the foods you eat? • Lipid metabolism • B-oxidation • Talk about how carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are linked

  35. Topics in CHE1230Metabolism • Talk about the role that insulin plays in both of them • Talk about American diets • Include protein metabolism as well

  36. In Lab Today You Will Look at Various Properties of Hydrocarbons: • Addition reactions with bromine • Unsubstituted compound to a substituted compound • Oxidation reactions • Hydrocarbon to an alcohol

  37. In Lab Today: • Flammability of hydrocarbons • Burn cleanly = alkane • Burns a little smoky = alkene • Burn very smoky = aromatic

  38. In Lab Today: • Boiling Point Determination • From CHE1200 • What determines boiling point? • What kind of compounds have high boiling points? • Low boiling points?