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Physical Science PHS 101. Test 1. Beiser Chapter 1, 2, 3, 5. 452 South Anderson Road Rock Hill, SC 29730 www.yorktech.com. Why?. Scientific Method. Physics - Motion & Energy Physics - Electricity, Magnetism & Optics Chemistry Meteorology Geology Astronomy. Tiger got to hunt,

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## Test 1

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**Physical SciencePHS 101**Test 1 Beiser Chapter 1, 2, 3, 5 452 South Anderson Road Rock Hill, SC 29730 www.yorktech.com**Why?**Scientific Method • Physics - Motion & Energy • Physics - Electricity, Magnetism & Optics • Chemistry • Meteorology • Geology • Astronomy Tiger got to hunt, Bird got to fly; Man got to sit and wonder, "Why, why, why?"Tiger got to sleep, Bird got to land; Man got to tell himself he understand. - Kurt Vonnegut**Chapter 1**Physical Quantities Beiser p.1**Scientific Notation**Good for very big or very small numbers. 300,000,000 = 3 x 100,000,000 = 3 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 3 x 108 0.0000052 = 5.2 ÷ 1,000,000 = 5.2 x 10-6 Beiser p.1**Unit Conversions**Since 3 ft = 1 yd Beiser p.2**Unit Conversions**Since 5280 ft = 1 mi and 1 m = 3.28 ft Beiser p.2**1000m 100m 10m 1m .1m**.01m .001m kilo hecto deka meters deci centi milli km hm dkm m dm cm mm king henry died don’t call me Metric Arrow 3.72 dkm = 3720 cm 1.5 m = 1500 mm 1.5 m = .015 hm 1200 cm = 12 m 1655 dm = .1655 km Beiser p.2**Vector Addition**Beiser p.3**1.27**Beiser p.9**Chapter 2**Motion in a Straight Line Beiser p.10**Velocity**Beiser p.10**Velocity Examples**1) If a person walks 15 miles in 3 hours, what is her average velocity? 2) If a car travels at a velocity of 2 m/s for 30 seconds, how far did it go? 3) If I travel 175 miles at 70 miles per hour, how long will it take? 4) If a plane travels north at 120 mph for 3 hr and then turns and flies west at 100 mph for 2 hr, how far away from its starting point is it? Beiser p.10**Acceleration**A change in speed in time acceleration due to gravity = g = 9.8 m/s2 = 32 ft/s2 Beiser p.10**Acceleration Examples**5) If my car is stopped at a light and then speeds up to 4 m/s in 2 s, find the acceleration. 6) If I'm traveling 6 m/s and step on the brakes to slow down to 2 m/s in 8 s, find the acceleration. Beiser p.10**Freefall**Beiser p.11**Chapter 3**The Laws of Motion Beiser p.18**Newton’s First Law**• 1st Law – A body at rest will stay at rest & a body in motion will stay in linear motion at constant velocity until a net force acts on it. V Beiser p.18**Newton’s Second Law**• 2nd Law – A net force on a mass causes an acceleration. F = ma a F m Beiser p.18**Newton’s Third Law**• 3rd Law – Every action (force) has an equal but opposite reaction. Table pushes up on box. Weight of box pushes down on table. Beiser p.19**Weight & Mass**• Mass is how much “stuff” something has. • Weight is how much gravity pulls on the “stuff”. Object on Earth Same object in space No gravity to pull on mass. Object has same mass, but no weight. Gravity pulls on mass. Object has mass & weight. Beiser p.19**Chapter 5**Energy Beiser p.35**Work**F is force, s is distance m is mass g is gravity Using a force to move an object: W = Fs = mgs Measured in kg m2/s2 = J (metric) or ft lbs (English) Ex: How much work does it take to lift a 200 kg box 3 m into the air? W = mgh = (200 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(3 m) = 5880 J Beiser p.35**Power**The rate of work or how fast work gets done Ex: How much power does it take to lift a 200 kg box 3 m into the air in 30s, Beiser p.35**Power Lifting Box**Beiser p.40**Lifting Box English Units**Beiser p.40**Kinetic Energy**The energy of a moving object (m is mass of the object, v is the velocity) Ex: Calculate the kinetic energy of a car that has a mass of 1500 kg moving at a speed of 5 m/s. KE = ½ m v2 = ½ (1500 kg)(5 m/s)2 =18,750 J Beiser p.36**Potential Energy**The energy an object develops by being raised to a height PE = mgh (m is mass, g = 9.8 m/s, h is height) EX: Calculate the potential energy of a book that has a mass of 5 kg that is 2 m above the ground. PE = mgh = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(2 m) = 98 J Beiser p.36**PE Example**Beiser p.36**Conservation of Energy**The total energy of a system cannot change unless energy is taken from or added to the system. At any two points, 1 and 2 PE1 + KE1 = PE2 + KE2 Beiser p.36**Cons. Of Energy**Beiser p.36**Cons.of Energy Ex.**Beiser p.36**2.24**Beiser p.16**2.38**Beiser p.16**3.8**Beiser p.21**3.29**Beiser p.24**3.35**Beiser p.24**3.39**Beiser p.25

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