ACT Prep Grammar Fall 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

act prep grammar fall 11 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ACT Prep Grammar Fall 11 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ACT Prep Grammar Fall 11

play fullscreen
1 / 74
ACT Prep Grammar Fall 11
264 Views
Download Presentation
nikita
Download Presentation

ACT Prep Grammar Fall 11

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ACT PrepGrammar Fall 11 Kreher

  2. Contents • Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions • Independent vs. Dependent Clauses • Simple, compound, & complex sentences • Comma use • Semicolon use

  3. Why learn grammar? • ACT/SAT? Notes/chords : music Grammar : writing

  4. Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions Independent vs. Dependent Clauses Simple, compound, & complex sentences Comma use Semicolon use

  5. 9/13 Do Now #4: Find the subject A word which refers to a thing, person, place, or idea word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence words that help describe something's location or other information What is a noun? What is a verb? What is a preposition?

  6. about • above • across • after • against • along • among • around • at • before • behind • below • beneath • beside • between • by • down • during • except • for • from • in • in front of • inside • instead of • into • like • near • of • off • on • onto • on top of • out of • outside • over • past • since • through • to • toward • under • underneath • until • up • upon • with • within • without Preposition examples

  7. Table In Around Swimming Friendship Google N, V, or P?

  8. Subject – the noun that is DOING or BEING something • Find the verb • Put the word WHO or WHAT in front of the verb • “Who [verb]s?” • “What [verb]s?” • The answer to that question is the subject. The computers in the Learning Center must be replaced.

  9. Find the subject • Mr. Kreher loves MLA format. • The narrator of the fantasy stories is a woman. • My brother and three sisters live on a mountaintop in Tennessee. • After the final song, the drummer hurlledhis sticks at the crowd. • Shouldn’t Hank’s bus arrive soon? • Wishing for better grades won’t do you much good. Error?

  10. Questions? One to five Comprehension Guiding Questions What are the main elements of a sentence and story? Why should we learn them?

  11. Independent vs. Dependent Clauses Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions Independent vs. Dependent Clauses Simple, compound, & complex sentences Comma use Semicolon use

  12. 3/12 Do Now #4What’s the difference b/n #1 and #2? • After Sue ate all the Fruity Pebbles • Sue ate all the Fruity Pebbles #1 – Dependent clause #2 – Independent clause

  13. Independent clause – a clause that can stand alone as a sentence. Dependent clause – a phrase that cannot stand alone as a sentence (still subject+object).

  14. Ind or Dep clause? Remember: A sentence needs a subject + object (predicate) • The dog could fly • Once Adam smashed the spider • Because he ate all of the Cheerios with his bare hands • Until Mr. Kreher has his first cup of coffee • Megan Fox is a terrible actress • But now they know

  15. Dependent marker • Both independent & dependent clauses have subject + predicate. HOWEVER, dependent clauses have a dependent marker. as, after, before, until, once, since, while, when, whenever (relating to time) where, wherever (relating to place) although, though, despite (acknowledging contradictions) if, even if, even though, how, unless, whether (acknowledging contingencies) because, in order to, why (examining cause and effect) who, which, that (relative pronouns)

  16. Examples • The inspector uses a dye to reveal imperfections in the metal. (independent clause) • After the inspector uses a dye to reveal imperfections in the metal... (dependent clause) • Unless the inspector uses a dye to reveal imperfections in the metal... (dependent clause)

  17. Ind & Dep? Box the dependent and underline the independent clauses. • Because I like television, I watch it all the time. • The woman killed the monster since he was too big of a wimp to do it for her. • Zaroff said the hunt was unfair only when he couldn’t kill Rainsford.

  18. Demonstrate • Create a long, complex sentence with a short, independent clause following it to create a dramatic point. My friend Beth thought that we would be best friends for the rest of our lives because she was always leading the way and that I loved to follow her around. I’ve always hated her.

  19. Recap Find the subject • The theory stated by the students amazed the science teacher. • Very slowly, Pandora opened the box. • Even though it rarely rains here, Chuck Cukker carries his umbrella wherever he goes. • His Santa Claus belly, girded by a cowboy belt, hangs over the sort of baggy trousers that went out with leisure suits and platform shoes.

  20. 9/23 Do Now #6: Recap • Define verb • Define preposition • Define subject • Define dependent marker

  21. Box the main verb & underline the independant clause. • Quickly, Piggy ate the sandwich. • When the sky turns purple, that’ll be when Kreher shall rule the world. • Truly, this man must have been ugly from birth. • Because he is mean, I will not take a class with him. • He could only guess at how many students actually read the novel fully. • The Internet is full of Lolcat pictures and sad YouTube comments. Error?

  22. Ate • Shall rule • Must have been • Will not take • guess • is

  23. POP QUIZ!  Define the following root words • -logy • ante- • auto- • bene- • com, con • dei, div • dict • flu, flux • locu, loqu, log • omni

  24. specious (adj) • bastion (n) • officious (adj) • tumult (n) • furtive (adj) • avidly (adv) • contrite (adj) • tacit (adj) • apex (n) • discursive (adj) • embroiled (adj) • diffidently (adv) • crestfallen (adj) • derisive (adj) • corpulent (adj)

  25. specious (adj) • bastion (n) • officious (adj) • tumult (n) • furtive (adj) • avidly (adv) • contrite (adj) • tacit (adj) • apex (n) • discursive (adj) • embroiled (adj) • diffidently (adv) • crestfallen (adj) • derisive (adj) • corpulent (adj)

  26. Simple, compound, & complex sentences Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions Independent vs. Dependent Clauses Simple, compound, & complex sentences Comma use Semicolon use

  27. 3/28 Do Now #5: Simple, Compound, Complex • What is the difference between the words compound and complex?

  28. Guiding Question • Why learn about sentence variety and compound, complex, and simple sentences?

  29. This sentence has five words. Here are five more words. Five-word sentences are fine. But several together become monotonous. Listen to what is happening. The writing is getting boring. The sound of it drones. It’s like a stuck record. The ear demands some variety. Now listen. I vary the sentence length, and I create music. Music. The writing sings. It has a pleasant rhythm, a lilt, a harmony. I use short sentences. And I use sentences of medium length. And sometimes, when I am certain the reader is rested, I will engage him with a sentence of considerable length, a sentence that burns with energy and builds with all the impetus of a crescendo, the roll of the drums, the crash of the cymbals–sounds that say listen to this, it is important. Gary Provost, quoted in Roy Peter Clark’s Writing Tools

  30. Simple sentences - an independent clause. One thought with a subject + object/predicate. A. Some studentslike to study in the mornings.B. Juan and Chaunceyplay football every afternoon.C. Aliciagoes to the library and studies every day.

  31. Compound sentences What’s the difference b/n compound and simple? A.  I tried to speak Chinese, and my friend tried to speak Japanese. B. Alejandro played the flute, so Piggy ate a sandwich. C.  Alejandro played football, but Jack liked killing pigs.

  32. Compound sentences What’s the difference b/n compound and simple? A.  I tried to speak Chinese, and my friendtried to speak Japanese. B. Alejandroplayed the flute, so Piggyate a sandwich. C.  Alejandroplayed football, but Jackliked killing pigs. - contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator

  33. Coordinating Conjunctions! • Coordinating conjunctions link two independent clauses F – for A – and N – nor B – but O – or Y – yet S – so

  34. Complex sentences A. Whenhehanded in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.  B. The teacherreturned the essays afterhenoticed the error. C. The students are studyingbecausetheyhave a test tomorrow.D. Aftertheyfinished studying, Juan and Mariawent to the movies. - an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses.

  35. Independent clause Independent clause Independent clause Independent clause Dependent clause • Simple • Compound • Complex , FANBOYS

  36. Practice 1: The teacher walked into the classroom, greeted the students, and took attendance.2: Mary played football while Chuck went shopping.3: Chuck played football, yet Phil went shopping.4: Although Chile has the better soccer team, it lost. 5: The island was filled with many winding trails, a small lake, and dangerous wild pigs. 6: Chauncey got an A on his essay because he worked hard and understood the material.

  37. Answers 1. Simple 2. Complex 3. Compound 4. Complex 5. Simple 6. Complex

  38. Questions? One to five Comprehension Guiding Questions

  39. 4/3 Do Now #6: Comma rules Comma rules Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions Independent vs. Dependent Clauses Simple, compound, & complex sentences Comma use Semicolon use

  40. Rule 1 • Learning grammar is more fun than science, math, recess, and free time combined! • My favorite Pokémon are Snorlax, Charizard, and Ekans. • You can buy life, liberty, and guns in Los Angeles. -- • To seperate the elements in a series.

  41. The trick was over, but Odysseus refused to leave Circe’s island. • The student explained her question, yet the teacher still didn't seem to understand. • Yesterday was Mr. Kreher’s birthday, so he was mad when no one remembered. -- 2. To separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of the seven coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS).

  42. a) While I was eating, the cat started playing the piano. b) Whenthe leaves stop falling, we'll shovel them up before the snow falls. b) After the test but before lunch, I went running. c) However, you may be interested to know I hate the color blue. c) Yet, maybe Odysseus wasn’t a bad guy after all. -- 3. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause.

  43. That Tuesday, which happens to be my birthday, is the only day when I am available to watch Modern Family. •  This restaurant has an exciting atmosphere. The food, on the other hand, is awful. • I appreciate your hard work. In this case, however, you still deserve an F. -- 4. Nonrestrictive clauses and phrases and other parenthetical elements are set off with commas

  44. He was a difficult, stubborn child. • Your cousin has an easy, happy smile. -- 5. To separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. NO COMMA HERE They lived in a white frame house. (non-coordinate)

  45. 4 rules of commas L lists U unnecessary phrases C combining Compound sentences & coordinating conjunctions: FANBOYS I introductory elements

  46. C U L U I C • She was a smart, funny girl. • I am, as you have probably noticed, kind of a big deal. • My $10 million estate is to be split amongst my wife, sister, parents, and best friend. • Lost, which was my favorite show, had a terrible ending. • However, Mad Men is now my favorite show. • I thought you were smart, but your inability to turn in work has proven the contrary.

  47. Add commas where necessary in the following sentences. If a sentence is correct, write “correct.” If you add a comma, write which part of LUCI it follows. , 1. Although the Beavers were expected to win they choked on Saturday night. 2. After my friends had gone inside I thought about what had just happened. 3. The night before I was leaving for band camp I was so excited. , ,

  48. , , 4. In the past, I didn’t get along with my family; however today my situation is different. 5. I liked how easy middle school was but I never really enjoyed it. 6. The powerful summer sun beat down on them. 7. I wish my friend, who never shuts up would stop bragging. Correct! ,

  49. Questions? One to five Comprehension Guiding Questions

  50. Semicolon rules Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions Independent vs. Dependent Clauses Simple, compound, & complex sentences Comma use Semicolon use