Introducing the Gender Transformative Approach in sexual and reproductive health and rights, and gender-based violence programmes Facilitators:
Module 1: Six interrelated components and the socio-ecological model
Definition of gender transformative approaches Gender transformative approaches (GTAs): “actively strive to examine, question, and change rigid gender norms and imbalances of power as a means of achieving SRHR objectives, as well as gender equality objectives at all levels of the socio-ecological model. Programmes and policies may transform gender relations through: • Encouraging critical awareness of gender roles and norms • Questioning the costs of harmful, inequitable gender norms in relation to SRHR and making explicit the advantages of changing them • Empowering women/girls and people with diverse gender and/or sexual identities/orientations • Engaging boys and men in SRH and gender equality By applying these four strategies, harmful, inequitable gender norms will change into positive, equitable and inclusive ones and lead to improved SRH of men/boys and women/girls, the prevention of gender-based violence and gender equality.” Based on Gupta 2000, Rolleri 2014 and USAID/IGWG 2011.
Rutgers’ GTA – sixinterrelatedcomponents • The human rights-based approach • Power • Normsandvalues • Gender anddiversity: sexual orientation, gender identity & expression, and sex characteristics • Empowerment of womenand girls • Engaging men and boys in SRHR programming
The socio-ecological model Visualises multiple layers of a person’s environment where harmful gender norms may be perpetuated:
Human rightsandthe rights-based approach • State = duty bearer • All people are rights holders = they are entitled to human rights. They should also respect the human rights of others • Accountability hold duty bearers to account, who have to face up to their commitments • Accountability requires empowerment
Human rightsandthe rights-based approach • Obligation to respect: States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights • Obligation to protect: States must protect individuals and groups against human rights abuses. • Obligation to fulfil: States must take positive action to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights
Human rights-based approach • Human rights (civil, political, social, cultural, economic) are: • universal • inalienable • indivisible • interdependent
Women’sand girls’ rights • ‘To eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child and the root causes of son preference, which results in harmful and unethical practices regarding female infanticide and prenatal sex selection’ (ICPD Program of Action Par. 4.16: (a)) • Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of families, including information and advice on family planning (CEDAW art. 10h) • States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of health care in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, access to health care services, including those related to family planning (CEDAW art.12.1) • To have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counselling and services in family planning (CEDAW art.14b) • ‘States Parties shall take appropriate and effective measures to: ...c) identify the causes and consequences of violence against women and take appropriate measures to prevent and eliminate such violence; d) actively promote peace education through curricula and social communication in order to eradicate elements in traditional and cultural beliefs, practices and stereotypes which legitimize and exacerbate the persistence and tolerance of violence against women’ (Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa 2003, Article 4(2)
Reproductiverights • Determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children (Proclamation of Teheran 1968, art.16) • Prohibition of forced sterilisation and forced abortion (Istanbul Convention 2011, art 39). • The right to legal and safe abortion (non-binding BDPfA 1995) • The right to birth control (non-binding BDPfA 1995) • Freedom from coerced sterilisation and contraception (non-binding BDPfA 1995) • The right to access good-quality reproductive healthcare (non-binding BDPfA 1995) • The right to education and access in order to make free and informed reproductive choices (non-binding BDPfA 1995) • The right to receive education about sexually transmitted infections and other aspects of sexuality, and protection from practices such as female genital mutilation (non-binding BDPfA 1995)
Sexual rights • The right to equality (SDG 10; Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Article 7; ICCPR #2; Yogyakarta Principles, Article 2). • The right to freedom of discrimination (UDHR 7, ICCPR #2; Yogyakarta Principles, Article 2). • The right to well-being and the highest attainable standard of health (SDG goal 3; Yogyakarta Principles, Article 17). • The right to privacy (UDHR, Article 12; ICCPR #17; Yogyakarta Principles, Article 6). • The right to support and information so that people may live accordingly to their sexual orientation and gender identity (Yogyakarta Principles, Article 28). • The right to protection against torture, inhumane or degrading treatment (UDHR 2016; Yogyakarta Principles, Article 10). • The right to found a family (Yogyakarta Principles, Article 24)
Women’s rights – reproductive rights – sexualrights • Exercise 1.1 • Give an example of a violation of one of these rights within the SRHR programming context. • In your case, who is the duty bearer(s) and rights holder in order to respect, protect and fulfil this right? • Is this rights violation linked to harmful gender norms? If yes, how? • What could you do in your programmes to change these harmful gender norms in order to achieve the protection, promotion and fulfillment of the right?
Respect for human rights Golden rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Platinum rule: Do unto others as they would have done unto them.
Accountability Horizontal accountability refers to the responsibilities that different civil society actors and organizations have to be accountably for their actions towards one another. Vertical forms of accountability are those in which citizens and their associations play direct roles in holding the powerful to account for their actions regarding gender equality and SRHR. Interpersonal and professional accountability refers to gender equal and gender equitable dynamics in interaction. In the workplace it addresses the politics of whose voices are heard, who decides and who leads, who does the less visible behind-the-scenes work, whose efforts are given attention and praise, and so on. This form of accountability includes men’s accountability to other men, implying that men who strive for gender equality have the responsibility to stand up against women’s and sexual and gender minorities’ rights violations. Personal accountability deals with how men and women address their own practice, striving to behave in equitable ways. Institutional accountability involves structures of consultation and collaboration between SRH organisations, men’s organisations and the different strands of the gender justice movement (i.e. consult with women’s rights organizations and other social justice groups). Source: http://menengage.org/resources/menengage-code-conduct/
2. Power Understanding power is fundamental if you are to understand how change happens.
Exercise 1.2.1 • Questions: Step 1 • Can you identify some goals of SRHR programmes? • In what context do these programmes operate? • What is the kind of change these programmes envision? • What enables or prevents change from happening?
Exercise 1.2.1 • Questions: Step 2 • A moment of contradiction or discomfort in your work • An ethical dilemma you faced in your work • Trying to make yourself heard in relation to power/authority/expertise • Being in a position of power/authority/expertise • A situation in which you tried to get your rights recognised • Choose one particular incident or event, rather than a broad experience over time. • Choose an experience that you feel comfortable sharing; not something that will be traumatic to explore in this setting. • Try to bring the event to life – use rich imagery and a story. Consider the setting, the characters, the senses (sight, sound, touch, smell, etc.), the action or dialogue, your feelings and emotions and those of the other characters (anger, confusion, sadness, elation).
Different dimensions of power Power Visible –Power over, observable behaviour, attitudes, decision-making mechanisms, winners and losers Hidden – Conscious, setting the agenda behind the scene, biases which exclude some from participation Invisible – Unconscious. Based on ideology or beliefs: social conditioning (internalised norms). Who decides what’s ‘normal’?
Visible power http://www.powercube.net/analyse-power/forms-of-power/
Hidden power http://www.powercube.net/analyse-power/forms-of-power/
Invisible power http://www.powercube.net/analyse-power/forms-of-power/
Expressions of power • ‘Power over’ is a way of exercising influence over people, often negatively associated with force, repression, coercion, discrimination, abuse and corruption.It perpetuates inequality, injustice and poverty. • ‘Power with’ builds collective strength and finds common ground among different interest groups. It is based on mutual support, solidarity and collaboration. • ‘Power to’ impliesthe capacity to decide and carry out desired actions. It opens up the possibility of joint action. • ‘Power within’ has to do with a person’s sense of self-worth, self-knowledge, self-confidence and the conviction of what is legitimate.
Norms Norms are: ”Patterns of behaviour that are widespread, are generally tolerated or accepted as proper, are reinforced by responses of others and are quite hard to resist even if they run against what is felt to be right”. Tibandebage et al. 2002
Gender norms Boys … … have freedom … have responsibility to lead, provide, protect and take charge … should never act like girls … are naturally attracted to girls … need to show they are strong and tough (to gain respect) … need girlfriends for social status … trick girls for favors … judge girls on physical appearance
Gender norms Girls … … lackfreedom … have adult responsibilities … have ambition … are weak/afraid/in need of protection … shouldbedifferential/proper/composed … bodies are their asset … are in dangerbecausethey are girls … are responsibleforarousing boys … torment boys … shouldn’tbe in romanticrelationships/have sexuntilthey are older
4. Gender anddiversity: sexual orientation, gender identity & expression, and sex characteristics
Sex and gender • Sex(dailyuse): activityfocused on sexualarousal • Sex: Biologicalcharacteristicsthatdefinehumans as male, female: hormonal, genetic/chromosomes, physical • Gender: social-psychological-culturalrepresentations of masculinityandfemininity. Gender identity, -roles, -stereotypes, -norms, -attitudes, -expression • Gender diversityandsexualidentity
Inaccurate use of terms • Genderinstead of sex: ‘Fill in your gender …’, ‘gender differences’ instead of ‘differencesbetween men andwomen’ • Sexinstead of gender: differencesbetween men andwomen are oftenattributedtotheirsexwhile in facttheycanbeexplainedby gender • social factors • experienceandpersonality • socialandinteractionalprocesses
Evolution of a concept Biologicalexplanationsemphasisethedifferencesbetweenwomenand men From modern to postmodern perspectives: • Gender as individualcharacteristic: gender identityand attitudes • Gender as norm: gender stereotypes, roles, the ‘sexual double standard’ • Gender as a procces: gender socialisationand ‘do gender’ = thecontinuousenactment of gender roles
Why are we interested in gender? • The recognisedimportance of social versus biologicalexplanations • Gender intersectsalmostallthedomains of our life • Gender andsexuality are inextricablylinked • Male/femalesexuality is depicted as fundamentally different andcomplementary • Sex = masculine drive, masculinesex as active, activesexuality as a preconditionformasculinity (male assertiveness, competitiveness). Femininesexuality as reluctant, subservient, vulnerable (comparefemininemodesty, caregiving) • ‘Gender typical’ sexuality is detrimentalforsexualandreproductive health andpleasure. ‘heteronormativity’, divers sexualidentities
Why are we interested in gender? • CSE programmes that address gender equality are 5 times more likely to be effective than those that do not. Of the CSE programmes that address gender, 80% were associated with a significantly lower rate of STIs or unintended pregnancy (Haberland 2015). • Targeted, gender-transformative programming on health and violence leads (amongst others) to: • 40% less violence against a partner • Greater contraceptive use: 70% of women in the MenCareprogramme vs. 61% in the comparison group, report currently using modern contraception • Greater involvement of women in decision-making in the household: 56% of women in the MenCareprogramme say that the man has the final say about the use of weekly/monthly income and expenses vs. 79% who say so in the comparison group, a difference of about 30%. (Doyle et.al. 2018:10-12)
It isn’talways easy todetermine gender • Continuousinteractionbetweenbiologicalandsocial factors: no waterproof layerbetween environment and person • Specificcontextsand/or partners make certain gender behaviour more probable • Changes during life andrelationships • Oftenthedifferencesbetweenwomenand men are not as big as peoplethink; in realitythediversitybetweenthesexes is bigger • Drawbacks topreoccupationwithsexdifferences
Gender identityandsexualidentity • Two different things! • Related, but therelationship is complex andvariable • Sexualexpression is a function of biological, psychological, socialandculturalinfluences • Inconsistenciesbetweenattraction, behaviourandidentity • Amongwomenthere is relatively strong diversity, plasticityanddiscontinuity • Gender atypicalbehaviour is condemned more strongly in boys (and boys condemn more strongly) • Increasingdiversity in sexualand gender identities
Gender identityandsexualidentity Gender expression Gender Identity Biologicalsex Sexualattraction
Intersectionality Multiple identities interconnect in one person, to create a whole that is different from each identity or social categorisation apart (Crenshaw, 1989). This is called intersectionality, which can be described as: “an analytical tool for studying, understanding and responding to the ways in which gender intersects with other identities (race, social class, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, age, mental or physical disability, etc.) and how these intersections contribute to unique experiences of oppression and privilege” (AWID 2004:1).
Stigma anddiscrimination • Stigma is a complex social process with many different forms, causes and effects • It is a distinguished mark or characteristic to label someone as inferior because of an attribute they (a group of people) have in common • Unfavorable attitudes and beliefs directed towards someone or something • Discrimination is a possible effect of stigma
SOGIESC-related stigma • Refers to a real or perceived negative feeling to a person or a group of persons by virtual of his or her SOGIESC. • A person is ignored, socially excluded and treated differently from others because of his/her SOGIESC • SOGIESC stigma differs from other forms of stigma (such as religious or nationality-related stigma, you can’t hide your skin color!) • Stigma or self-stigmatisation can be a reason for people with differing SOGIESC not to disclose their identity or not to seek medical treatment and support when needed.
Stigma Problem Tree EffectsTop branches How does this affect the person being stigmatised? FormsTrunk What dopeople do when theystigmatise? CausesRoots. Why do people stigmatise?
Empowerment “Empowerment is the expansion of choice and the strengthening of voice through the transformation of power relations, so women and girls have more control over their lives and futures.” Eerdewijk et al. 2017:17
Choiceandcriticalconsciousness • Choice is ‘the ability of women and girls to make and influence choices that affect their lives and futures’. • Choice is empowering if women and girls have freedom to choose from a range of options, for example regarding contraceptive use or when and whom to marry. Empowered choice challenges social inequalities. • Critical consciousness is women and girls identifying and questioning how inequalities in power operate in their lives, and asserting and affirming their sense of self and their entitlements (‘power-within’). • For empowerment to happen, choices need to materialise in actions and outcomes.
Voice • The capacity of women and girls to speak up, be heard and share in discussions and decisions – in public and private domains – that affect their lives. • Voice is important to contest existing power relations. It can be realised through: • The participation and representation of women and girls in political and economic decision-making institutions; • Collective organising in favor of gender equality; • Strengthened leadership of women and girls (individually and collectively) to pursue own interests and needs • Holding institutions accountable
Agency • Agency relates to choice and voice. It means: • Women and girls pursuing goals, expressing voice and influencing and making decisions free from violence and retribution. The capacity of women and girls to speak up, be heard and share in discussions and decisions – in public and private domains – that affect their lives. • Decision-making is strongly affected by gender and age, in intersection with other social markers such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, ethnicity, race, or caste. • Empowered decision-making involves negotiating, influencing and bargaining
Leadership • Formal leadership: women’s political participation or representation in leadership and management positions • Informal leadership: the ability to inspire and guide others in order to bring about change. • Leadership can manifest itself individually and collectively: power over, power within, power to and in case of collective action also power with. • Leadership is an expression of choice and voice, requires empowerment and larger control by women and girls over their lives.
Exercise 1.5.3 Questions Are these statements familiar in your community? Share some of your stories of beating and other abusive treatment. Is violence on the increase? • Do you think the reasons men give for beating their wives are acceptable? • Do you think reasons for beating men are acceptable? • What are the consequences for women who choose to leave their abusive husbands? • What are the consequences for their children? • What are some effective and life-giving solutions for women who are frequently abused by their husbands or male companions? • What are consequences for men when they get abused?
Definition of gender-based violence Any crime committed against persons, whether male or female (including gender and sexual minorities), because of their sex and/or socially constructed gender roles. It is not always manifested as a form of sexual violence, and may include non-sexual attacks on women, girls, men and boys because of their gender. 2014 Policy paper form Office of the Prosecutor of International Criminal Court) The Convention of the Elimination of Violence Against Women (CEDAW), refers to “all acts of gender‐based violence that result in, or are likely to result in, physical, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” Article 1 DEVAW, Article 3 Istanbul Convention
Exercise 1.5.4 Questions • How does this story make you feel? • What does the response of the deputy principal in the case we have just read make you feel, and what does it tell you about people's views about rape? • Are there any cases in the newspaper cuttings that you want to talk about? • Do you know of any experiences of women who have suffered rape that you want to talk about?