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DAY 4

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DAY 4

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  1. DAY 4

  2. CDN GEOGRAPHY CONTINUED • PUT UP OVERHEAD OF RIVER HIGHWAY SYSTEM SHOWING HOW GEOGRAPHY COULD HAVE BEEN OVERCOME • WHY IMPORTANT? • TRADE, TRAVEL, COMMUNICATION, ETC

  3. J M CARELESS’ READING • ONE • CANADA IS HUGE. REGIONS BIGGER THAN MOST EUR. COUNTRIES • NO REAL NATURAL BOUNDARIES LIKE IN EUROPE • BARRIERS INHIBIT MOVEMENT TO EACH REGION. EASIER TO BECOME CLOSE TO US STATES NEARBY. • OBSTACLES TOUGH TO BUILD AROUND OR THROUGH • TOUGH TO MAINTAIN COMMUNICATION LINK • TOUGH TO EXPAND, AND NURTURE AN IDENTITY

  4. TWO • CANADIAN GEOGRAPHY HARSH • MOST CLUSTER CLOSE TO US BORDER. • 70-80% OF CANADIAN POPULATION WITHIN 200 MILES OF US BORDER (CHANGING AS ALTA OIL IND GROWS) • HUGE AREAS UNINHABITED (NORTH, SHIELD ETC) • MOSTLY CANADA WILL HAVE SMALL DENSITY • SOME AREAS WILL BE OVERPOPULATED WHERE? • PROFESSIONALS NEEDED IN AREAS, NOT WILLING TO GO, SO TOWNS MOVE WHY?

  5. THREE • DIFFICULT TO DEVELOP INTERNAL TRADE • REGIONS TOO RELIANT ON THE US MARKET AND ECONOMY 80% OF EXPORTS GO THERE • TRANSPORTATION NIGHTMARES SO LINKS TO USA • RAIL CUT THROUGH THE SHIELD AND THE ROCKIES • EARLY ON A LOT OF CANADA WASTELAND WITH LITTLE ECONOMIC POSSIBILITIES. NO FARMING IN NORTH OR SHIELD

  6. FOUR • COASTS HAD FISHERIES, STILL DO • INTERIOR HAD GREAT FARMLAND, STILL DOES. ST. LAWRENCE LOWLANDS, AND THE INTERIOR PLAINS ARE A BREADBASKET AND LATER INDUSTRY • FORESTS OF THE INTERIOR ALLOWED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TIMBER INDUSTRY, HUNTING, AND FUR • THE NORTH AND SHIELD AT ONE TIME DETRIMENTAL, BUT NOW FULL OF MINERALS THAT MAKE IT VERY VALUABLE PART OF THE COUNTRY • RIVERS ALLOW AN ALTERNATE SOURCE OF TRANSPORTATION

  7. FIVE • RIVER HIGHWAY IS A SERIES OF RIVERS THAT CAN BE UTILIZED FOR AN ALTERNATE SOURCE OF TRANSPORTATION • INITIALLY MOST PEOPLE TRAVELLED WEST ON RIVERS TO FIND THE NORTH WEST PASSAGE • THEN GAVE UP ON THAT, BUT NOTICED THE RESOURCES IN THE INTERIOR • TO GET TO THEM FOLLOWED THE RIVERS. USED THESE TO AVOID THE GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITATIONS • WITHOUT THESE RIVER HIGHWAYS, CANADA WOULD PROBABLY NOT EXIST.

  8. SIX • MUCH LIKE ANCIENT GREECE CITY STATES CANADA GREW IN CLUSTERS • IN GREECE CITY STATES DEVELOPED IN ISOLATION FROM ONE ANOTHER BECAUSE OF THE MOUNTAINS THAT SEPARATED THEM • WITH LITTLE CONTACT NO PAN GREECE MOVEMENT. THIS SAME AS FOR CANADA EXCEPT ON GRANDER SCALE. • WHERE CITY STATES DEVELOPED IN GREECE REGIONS DID HERE • OUR BOUNDARIES WERE JUST AS PRONOUNCED, BUT MUCH LARGER IN SCOPE • SINCE THE BOUNDARIES RUN NORTH SOUTH, THE POCKETS WERE EAST WEST.

  9. SEVEN • EACH ISOLATED AREA GREW INDEPENDENTLY OF ONE ANOTHER • WHEN FINALLY UNITED, MISTRUST REMAINED • EACH AREA CONTINUED TO THINK OF THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE AND TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF BY THE OTHERS • THERE REMAINED AN US AGAINST THEM MENTALITY TO THIS DAY • THINK NEWFOUNDLAND. MANY STILL HATE BEING IN CANADA • THINK THE WEST WHERE THEY DEVELOP THEIR OWN PARTIES TO LOOK AFTER THEIR INTERESTS IN POLITICS. PROGRESSIVES, ALLIANCE

  10. EIGHT • THE RIVER HIGHWAYS HELPED IMMENSELY • COMMON FEAR AND LOATHING OF THE UNITED STATES • COMMON HISTORY AND ATTACHMENTS TO BRITISH. • LATER ON THE RAILWAY

  11. NINE • WE HAVE ALWAYS HAD INFERIORITY COMPLEX • WE TRY TO KEEP THEM HAPPY WITHOUT SACRIFICING INDEPENDENCE OF ACTION • LEERY OF MANIFEST DESTINY • OVER TIME WE DRIFT FROM BRITISH ALLEGIANCE TO THE US SPHERE OF INFLUENCE. • STRUGGLE TO BE CANADIAN WITH OUR OWN CULTURE.

  12. PUT UP OVERHEAD OF NATIVE POPULATION DISTRIBUTION • HOW DOES THIS MIRROR GEOGRAPHY? • WHY IS THIS THE CASE?

  13. CANADIAN NATIVES • GEOGRAPHY INFLUENCES NATIVE POPULATIONS JUST AS IT DID EUROPEAN EXPLORERS AND CANADIANS TODAY • HUNDREDS OF TRIBES ACROSS CANADA, BUT CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO SIX MAJOR LANGUAGE GROUPS

  14. WIDE VARIANCES WITHIN LANGUAGE GROUPS DID EXIST • POPULATION ESTIMATES 220,000 TO 18 MILLION (2 MILLION IN CANADA) • DISEASE FROM EUROPEANS DECIMATED POPULATIONS BEFORE EXPLORERS CROSSED THE CONTINENT

  15. INDIANS OF THE PACIFIC COAST • HAIDA SALISH NOOTKA • FISHERMEN, SEA HUNTERS, AGRARIAN • SEDENTARY TRIBES MOSTLY • PERMANENT VILLAGES BY MANY • HAIDA (TOTEM POLES) • SEPARATED FROM PLAINS INDIANS BY MOUNTAINS AND YUKON MACKENZIE INDIANS BY RIVERS

  16. PLAINS INDIANS • BLACKFOOT, SIOUX, ASSINIBOINE, CREE, OJIBWA ETC • HUNTER GATHERER GROUPS (TEE PEE) • NOMADIC (BUFFALO) • NOT AS SOCIALLY ADVANCED AS PACIFIC COAST TRIBES

  17. INDIANS OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS • ALGONQUIN, ATHABASCAN, LINGUISTIC GROUPS • NOMADIC HUNTER GATHERERS (SEMI NOMADIC) • LESS SOCIALLY ORGANIZED SINCE NOMADIC • BIRCH BARK CANOE, SNOW SHOE • FORREST AND FISHERY ALONG COAST

  18. INDIANS OF THE ST LAWRENCE • IROQUOIS, MOHAWK, HURON • GREW FOOD, HUNTED/TRAPPED AS WELL • RELATIVELY SEDENTARY ALONG RIVERS • LONG HOUSES • FERTILE LANDS SUPPORTED SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE

  19. INDIANS OF THE NORTH/ MACKENZIE YUKON BASIN (INNU BENE) • NORTH VERY HARSH ENVIRONMENT THAT NEEDED SPECIAL SKILLS TO ADAPT • HUNTERS (SEAL, WHALE ETC) • SORT OF SEDENTARY ETC • INDIANS OF YUKON MACKENZIE SIMILAR IN THE NORTH, BUT ALONG RIVERS ALSO FISHED AND IN AREAS ALSO FARMED

  20. NATIVE CULTURE, GENERALLY • MAN JUDGED BY ABILITY TO HUNT, PROVIDE, AND BRAVERY • COMMUNE LIKE VILLAGE • HIGHLY FIT AND SKILLED INDIVIDUALS • NOMADIC LIFE PROHIBITS LARGE SCALE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT FOR SOME, OTHERS HIGHLY STRATIFIED SOCIAL GROUPINGS • MONOTHEISTIC (GREAT SPIRIT) WITH SINGLE EVIL SPIRIT AS WELL • LESSER SPIRITUAL ENTITIES AS WELL GIVEN POWER BY THE GREAT SPIRIT CONTROLLING RAIN, CROPS, ANIMALS, NATURE • EQUALITY WITHIN TRIBE WITH RESPECT FOR ELDERS

  21. TRIBE REARED YOUNG • KNEW THEIR ENVIRONMENT WELL (CEDAR TEA) HOUSING ETC • TAUGHT EUR FOOD, CANOES, FISHING, HUNTING, MEDICINE, SNOW SHOE, GUIDED THEM FOR FUR ETC • OVERHEAD OF NATIVE LINGUISTIC GROUP DISTRIBUTION • PROJECT?? PICK A LINGUISTIC GROUP AND RESEARCH THEIR CULTURE, HISTORY AND PRESENT TO CLASS