Chapter 5 The Classical Style in the Arts
The Classical Style • “The quest for harmonious order was the driving force behind the revolution of the classical style . . . .” (Fiero 108)
The Classical Style • Clarity • Harmony • Proportioned order (Fiero 108)
“Humanism, realism, and idealism are hallmarks of Greek art.” (Fiero 110)
“Greek art is . . . humanistic not only because it observes fundamental laws derived from the human physique, but because it focuses so consistently on the actions of human beings.” (Fiero 110)
Leonardo's Vitruvian Man, 1490 http://leonardodavinci.stanford.edu/submissions/clabaugh/history/leonardo.html#top
Painting on Pottery • ca. 1200-700 BCE: The Geometric Period • ca. 700-480 BCE: The Archaic Period • 480-323 BCE: The Classical Period
The Geometric Period: stylized motifs http://www.uwm.edu/Course/mythology/0100/102.jpg
The Geometric Period, http://www.uwm.edu/Course/mythology/0100/101.jpg http://www.hellenic-art.com/pottery/geo2.htm
The Archaic Period Black Figure: In black-figure pottery, areas of black, red and white are painted as a substrate for the figures which, after firing, are enhanced by incising the outlines into the red surface.http://www.beloit.edu/~arthist/historyofart/greek/blackfigure.htm "Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game," c. 530 bce. http://www.accd.edu/sac/vat/arthistory/arts1303/Greek2.htm
Hercules with his hands on the lion’s neck http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/GREECE/herkreps.html
ca. 510 BCAthena and Herakles http://www.beloit.edu/~arthist/historyofart/greek/blackfigure.htm
The Classical Period: red figure Red Figure: (c. 530-450 BC) negative version of Black Figure. Red-figure pottery was made by first painting the outlines of the figures, then providing the details, then painting the grounds. Because the brush is easier to control than an engraving tool, red- figure vases tend to be more detailed than black-figure http://www.beloit.edu/~arthist/historyofart/greek/redfigure.htm
The Classical Period: red figure Heracles fighting the Nemean Lion. After ruining all his weapons on the lion's impervious hide, Heracles must choke the monster to death. Afterwards he wears its skull as a helmet and its skin for a cloak. ca. 490 b.c.http://www.museum.upenn.edu/Greek_World/pottery_big-07.html
The Classical Period: white ground • (c. 450-400 BC) grave ornamentation • White-ground pottery was made by first painting the outlines of the figures, then providing the details, then painting the grounds in white. (http://www.beloit.edu/~arthist/historyofart/greek/whiteground.htm) http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/dlevine/ReligionImages.html
seated Apollo holding lyre, pouring libation. Greek, 480-70 BCE http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/apollocup2.jpg
ca. 460 BCWomen with funerary gifts http://www.beloit.edu/~arthist/historyofart/greek/whiteground.htm
Greek Sculpture (See student presentation)
Contrapposto = Italian word for "set against". A method developed by the Greeks to represent freedom of movement in a figure. The parts of the body are placed asymmetrically in opposition to each other around a central axis, and careful attention is paid to the distribution of weight. http://www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture9.html
Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), 460-450 B.C.E. Marble copy of a bronze original, 5' high. Museo delle Terme, Rome. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
Poseidon/Zeus, found in the sea off Cape Artemision, c. 450 B.C.E. Bronze, 6'10 1/4". National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
Warrior from Riace, c. 450 B.C.E. Bronze with bone, glass paste, and copper inlay, 6 4/5" high. Museo Nazionale, Reggio Calabria, Italy. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
The caryatid porch of the Erechtheum, sourth side, 421-407 BC, Acropolis, Athens. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman copy of Greek original of c. 350 B.C.E. Marble, 6' 8 3/4" high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.
Relief of birth of Aphrodite from the genitals of Uranus, rising from the sea assisted by the two Horae. Ludovisi Throne, ca 470-460 BC, Altemps Museum, Rome. http://www.vroma.org/images/raia_images/ludovisi.throne.jpg
The so-called 'Mourning Athena'. Leaning on her spear with the left hand, her body slightly inclined forward, she bends her head and contemplates the stele standing before her. This latter may have been a stele marking out the boundaries of the sacred precinct of the goddess, or a list of casualties in war. Severe style. c. 460 BCE. Athens: Acropolis Museum. http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/dlevine/ReligionImages.html
Lapith overcoming a centaur, south metope 27, Parthenon, Athens, 447-438 BCE. Marble, height 4 ft. 5 in. http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~kallet/greece/pictures.html
The centaurs were a fabulous race of half human and half horse creatures from untamed regions of Thessaly. They were invited to attend the wedding of the king of their neighbors, the Lapiths. In the midst of the wedding the centaurs became drunk and disorderly and attempted to abduct Hippodamia, the bride of Peirthoös. In the ensuing battle the Lapiths overcome the centaurs. The centaurs as both being half human and being in a state of drunkenness are clearly set off from the Lapiths. The wild ferocity of the centaur is here contrasted to the restrained expression of the Lapith. The popularity of this subject matter in Greek Archaic and Classical art can be explained by its theme of order or cosmos overcoming chaos and a series of related binaries: reason and self-control overcoming immoderate passion, culture overcoming nature, civilization overcoming barbarism, human techné (technology) harnessing wild, animal forces of nature, and Greek defeating non-Greek. http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth200/politics/images_authority_2_greek.html
Parthenon, Athens, 447-436 BCE http://www.willamette.edu/cla/wviews/slides.cgi?p1
Varied Uses in History • 436 BCE Completed • Late 6th century Converted into a Christian church • 1458 Turned into a mosque • 1687 A Venetian shell exploded the gunpowder stored by the Turks in it. • (J. Glancey, The Story of Architecture, DK, 2000)
Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BC. Model of the lost statue. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.http://www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture10.html
Parthenon: A Symbolic Temple • Represented all the core values that held the Greek civilization together: • A place of gathering and worship • A Greek warship (the basis of Greek power) • A domestic loom (the root of every Greek household) • The people themselves (J. Glancey, The Story of Architecture, DK, 2000)
Greek Warship http://www.artsales.com/ARTistory/Ancient_Ships/images/Greek_27.gif
A domestic loom http://www.mythinglinks.org/WomenWeaving~TLGAofM86~r50s6more.jpg
The Greek Orders • (1) Doric • (2) Ionic • (3) Corinthian
Doric: Referred to as "basic order." Most plain of orders. Emphasis on stability and grace. Massive and weighty. Serious and masculine. http://www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture10.html http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/doric1.jpg
Doric entablature http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/doric2.jpg
Doric: NYC Custom House, 1834 http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/doric-nycustom.jpg
Ionic: Fairly fluid style. Strong Near Eastern influence. Light and graceful http://www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture10.html http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/ionic1.jpg