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adjectives of the 3 rd declension n.
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“Adjectives of the 3 rd Declension”

“Adjectives of the 3 rd Declension”

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“Adjectives of the 3 rd Declension”

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  1. “Adjectives of the 3rd Declension” Ch. 16

  2. Adjectives “Adjectives of the 1st/2nd Declensions” 3 KINDS: • -us, -a, -um • -er, -a, -um • special –ius (UNUS NAUTA)

  3. Adjectives “Adjectives of the 3rd Declension” 3 KINDS (based on # of NOM. SING. forms) • 3 Endings (m., f., n.) • 2 Endings (m./f., n.) • 1 Ending (m./f./n., m./f./n. genitive form) --in the dictionary listing, 1 Ending adjectives still have two forms shown

  4. Adjectives “Adjectives of the 3rd Declension” • 3 Endings: celer, celeris, celere (“swift”) • 2 Endings: brevis, breve (“short”) • 1 Ending: ingēns, ingentis (“huge”) Take the adj base from the FEM NOM SING form (whichever that may be) except with 1 Endings Adjs of 3rdDecl (take from gen. form)

  5. “Adj of 3rd Declension” ENDINGS ONLY ending different from 3rd declension i-stem nouns is masculine/feminine ablative singular!!!!

  6. Adjectives • ANY adjective (i.e. an adjective of either the 1st/2nd or of the 3rd) can modify ANY noun (i.e. a noun of any declension) • ALL adjectives must agree with the nouns they are modifying in GENDER, NUMBER, and CASE • …but NOT necessarily DECLENSION or APPEARANCE (i.e. ending)

  7. PRACTICE • Adjs of 1st/2ndDecl = -us -a -um etc. • Adjs of 3rdDecl = 3rdi-stem endings • Adj matches noun in GENDER/#/CASE

  8. ADJECTIVE USAGES • We already know 3 usages of adjectives; today we will learn a 4th (a little-used one) • #1: Attributive (just a simple modifier) • Laudōtuammentem. = I praise your mind. • Laudōtuampotentemmentem. = I praise your powerful mind.

  9. ADJECTIVE USAGES • #2: Predicate Adjective (X = Y, with a form of sum or some linking verb) • Audītoreratdulcis. = The listener was pleasant. • Portaeeruntingentēs. = The gates will be huge.

  10. ADJECTIVE USAGES • #3: Substantive (adj acts as its own noun) • Timēmusācriaanimalia. = “We fear the fierce animals.” (ATTRIBUTIVE) • Timēmusācria. = “We fear the fierce.” OR “We fear fierce things.” (SUBSTANTIVE) • Timēmusācrēs. = “We fear the fierce.” OR “We fear fierce men/women/people.” (SUBSTANTIVE)

  11. ADJECTIVE USAGES • #4: Objective Complement (describes result of the action of the verb on the direct object) • FēcīRōmampotentem. = I made Rome powerful.

  12. WEIRD VOCAB • potens, potentis - 1 Ending Adj of 3rdDecl • = “able,” “powerful,” “mighty,” “strong” • can take complementary infinitive: “able to…” Agricola potēnscurrereperīculumsaepevītat. A farmer able to run avoids danger often.

  13. WEIRD VOCAB • senex, senis - 1 Ending Adj of 3rdDecl • = “old,” “aged” • so often used as a substantive that you may as well learn it like one too: • senex, senis, m. - “old man”

  14. WEIRD VOCAB • quam (adv.) = how! (NOT “how?) • Quam dulcisestlībertās! • How sweet is liberty! • Quam dulcisestcurrere! • How sweet it is to run!

  15. PRACTICE • Adjs of 1st/2ndDecl = -us -a -um etc. • Adjs of 3rdDecl = 3rdi-stem endings • Adj matches noun in GENDER/#/CASE

  16. You try! • Decline cīviscīvis m. AND fortis, forte N: Cīvisfortis N: Cīves fortes G: CīvisfortisG: Cīviumfortium D: Cīvīfortī D: Cīvibusfortibus AC: Cīvemfortem AC: Cīves fortes AB: Cīvefortī AB: Cīvibusfortibus

  17. You try! • Decline satura, saturae f. (satire) and omnis, omne (every) N: omnissaturaomnessaturae G: omnissaturaeomniumsaturārum D: omnīsaturae omnibus saturīs Ac: omnemsaturamomnessaturās Ab: omnīsaturā omnibus saturīs