Disaster Health Management: Role of NGOs in Disasters - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Disaster Health Management: Role of NGOs in Disasters

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Disaster Health Management: Role of NGOs in Disasters
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Disaster Health Management: Role of NGOs in Disasters

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  1. Disaster Health Management:Role of NGOs in Disasters Dr Peter A. Leggat MD, PhD, DrPH, FAFPHM, FACTM, FACRRM Associate Professor and Deputy Director Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health and Tropical Medicine James Cook University Townsville, Australia

  2. About the author • Dr Peter Leggat is co-ordinator of the postgraduate course in disaster and refugee health at James Cook University in Australia. He has also served on the World Safety Organization (WSO) Board of Directors from 1989-1999 and from 2003-Present. He was Director General of the WSO from 1997-1999. He is currently assisting with their terrorism and counter-disaster initiative. Dr Leggat undertook his studies in disaster health as part of his postgraduate studies in aeromedical evacuation at the University of Otago, New Zealand

  3. In this session, we will • Revisit the potpourri of NGOs definitions and acronyms • Examine some of the core values of NGOs and how NGOs operate • Gain some insight into new directions in accountability of NGOs • Examine the civil-military relationship • Appreciate how NGOs may fit into the disaster health management equation

  4. What are non-governmental organisations (NGOs)? In the current context: • A civic or public advocacy organisation, which generates, transfers, or administers humanitarian and other aid (development / relief) • Generally, NGO's are organised as nonprofit corporations (charities) • Can be local or international (INGOs) • May work with or independent of government • Generally, do not include professional associations, businesses, and foundations

  5. Examples of NGOs involved in disaster & humanitarian crisis response • Care • MSF • Oxfam • Red Cross (not ICRC) • Save the Children • St John Ambulance • World Vision

  6. Who are the other players in disaster health management? • Government • National • State/Provincial • Local • United Nations • Donors • Hybrid organisations with own defined status • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

  7. Related Acronyms • CBO: Community-Based Organization • CSO: Civil Society Organisation • DONGO: Donor-Organised Non-Governmental Organisation • GONGO: Government-Organized Non-Governmental Organisation • IO: International Organisation • NGDO: Non-Governmental Development Organisation • PDO: Private Development Organisation • PSO: Public Service Organisation • PVO: Private Voluntary Organisation • QUANGO: QUasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation • VO: Voluntary Organisation

  8. Every NGO is different and is governed largely by their own individual charter

  9. How do they operate? • NGOs vary greatly • Organizational structure is similar to businesses • Usually non-rigid hierarchy; significant flexibility and authority at the field level • International NGOs often team up with local NGOs or have regional or local branches

  10. Core values • Neutrality • Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint • Impartiality • Aid is given regardless of race, creed, or nationality • Aid is based on need alone • Independence • Aid agencies shall not act as instruments of government foreign policy

  11. Core values • Core values may impact on NGO’s willingness to work with other agencies • Even perception of value violation will be avoided

  12. What do they do? • Operational verses Advocacy • Grassroots, long-term projects, development work • Willing to work in high risk areas; not constrained by sovereignty • In theory, emphasis on sustainability • Full integration with local population • Good positioning for disaster response

  13. What do they do well? • Usually have excellent advocacy or lobbying capacity • Can fill gaps-specialised skills/capacity • Usually mobilise quickly • Often well connected at local level

  14. What don’t they do well? • Can duplicate services • Turf wars can erupt • May step outside their areas of specialty • Often overcommit/overextend capacities • May not be so good at sustainability

  15. The extent to which an NGO can contribute to any disaster relief operation is often dictated by context

  16. What is the situation? Who is there? What is their capacity? Are their tensions between players? How well are they recognised there? What frameworks are in place on the ground? How robust or resilient is the community? Are there plans in place? Are the roles clarified? What voice does the NGO have? Are they recognised by other NGOs? How are they funded? What is the context?

  17. Who pays them? • Funding sources • Private Donations (citizens, businesses and foundations) • International Organizations (UN) • National Governments • Perceptions are important • Importance of public relations and the Media

  18. Where international assistance required in disasters • Donors also rely on NGOs, because of their access to the populations in need • And again, their access is dependent on their neutrality • NGOs, as implementing partners of donor organisations, are the legs on which disaster response stands

  19. Accountability • How do we know that NGOs are doing the right thing? • Who monitors NGOs?

  20. Who monitors NGOs? • Little External Monitoring • Self-Regulation: NGO Standards • Red Cross Code of Conduct • InterAction PVO Standards • Sphere Minimum Standards in Disaster Response

  21. Sphere Project • www.sphereproject.org • Launched in 1997 • Humanitarian NGOs and related organizations, including Red Cross and Red Crescent movements • Three elements • Handbook • Collaboration • Expression of commitment to quality and accountability

  22. Sphere Project • www.sphereproject.org • Includes • Humanitarian Charter • Minimum standards in disaster response • One example of a standard to aspire to/be measured against

  23. NGO Culture • Independent: need to cooperate • Decentralised authority • On-the-job training (changing however) • Often develop a range of field guidelines, e.g. MSF, Red Cross • Hopefully develop long-term perspective

  24. How do NGOs coordinate? • Australian Embassy team • Other Government Agencies • UN Coordination Entities [UNHCR, WFP, UNDP, UNICEF, OCHA, Special Humanitarian Coordinator] • NGO-Only Coordination Bodies/Field-level coordination meetings • Host Government Ministries / Authorities • Civil-Military Cooperation or Operation Centres

  25. Government Military UN/IOs Host Countries NGOs Religion Business Zone of Collaboration/Coordination

  26. Civil-military cooperation • Most disasters and humanitarian emergencies do NOT involve the military • The need for civil-military cooperation may be the exception rather than the rule • However the logistic support provided by larger NGOs or the military in support of smaller NGOs can be invaluable

  27. Civil-Military Co-operationServices typically requested by NGOs • Security Services • Landmine Locations • Security Briefings • Convoy Support • Guidance on Local Security • Technical Assistance • Access to Remote Areas, Ports, and Airfields

  28. How effective are NGOs? • What have they chosen to do? • What is their mandate • Do they add value? • What will the other players allow them to do? • How do you measure these? Are they accountable?

  29. The capacity of an NGO to contribute to disaster response depends on their own ability to • Define their role within the broad context of disaster health management, • Effectively communicate that role (are other players aware?), and • Ensure that they add value