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  1. A Thesis Defense for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science (Breeding and Genetics) ByDuodu Addison (M.Sc) Index number: 9151980001

  2. TOPIC Genetic Improvement of Growth Traits, Disease Resistance and Docility of Four Strains of Local Guinea Fowl in Ghana

  3. ORDER OF PRESENTATION • INTRODUCTION • PROBLEM STATEMENT • OBJECTIVE • MATERIALS AND METHODS • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • CONCLUSION • RECOMMENDATION

  4. INTRODUCTION • Domestic Guinea fowl (Numidameleagris) • Originated from Africa ((Ferguson, 2008; Annoretal., 2013). • Reared in Europe, specifically France, Hungary, Poland, Belgium and Russia, Asia, and Latin and North America (Annoret al., 2013). • In Ghana, Guinea fowls are found mostly in the northern savanna regions

  5. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • Importance • Income and protein, low cholesterol levels, higher yield of edible meat compared to chicken (Dubiec and Zagalska-Neubauer, 2006). • Both the eggs and meat are delicacies. • longer storage and easier handling of eggs with less breakage (Dei et al., 2004).

  6. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • Importance • Cultural purposes - funeral celebrations, sacrifices, as a token for settling disputes and welcoming mother-in- laws (Annoret al., 2013). • Guinea fowl production is lucrative because there is high demand for both the meat and the eggs.

  7. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • Problem statement and justification Poor growth performance, disease resistance and docility of local Guinea fowl (Annoret al., 2013). This can be attributed to • extensive production system • poor feeding, health care and management practices • the use of unimproved breeds of birds (Dougnonet al., 2012).

  8. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • Problem statement and justification Table 1. Performance of Local and European Guinea fowls Annoret al., (2013)

  9. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • Objective Main To improve productivity of local Guinea fowls in Ghana through genetic selection. Specific 1. To estimate average values of traits and verify strain, sex and seasonal effects on traits. 2.To determine disease resistance in local Guinea fowls through the use of Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) as an indicator trait.

  10. INTRODUCTION CONT’D Specific objective 3.To measure docility in local Guinea fowls through the use of cage score and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio 4.To estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. 5.To estimate genetic gain of third (3rd) generation offspring in body weight, disease resistance and docility.

  11. MATERIALS AND METHODS • Study area: Poultry Unit of the Department of Animal Science, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong campus (Ghana). • Period: August, 2015 to September, 2018. • Annual rainfall: 1300mm (Meteorological Services Department, 2015). • Daily temperature:Between 25°C and 30°C and the relative humidity of the area is 70% (MSD, 2015).

  12. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’D • Experimental birds • 930 keets. The males were 380 and the females 550. • The best one hundred and thirty-two (22 males and 110 females) were selected based on body weight to build the base stock after taking six month body weights.

  13. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’D • Housing and experimental design • The birds were housed in a slated wooden pen partitioned into 22 compartments. • Each compartment contained 6 birds and measured 1.5m by 3m. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used with strains as treatment

  14. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’D • Feeding • Table 2:Feed composition ME = Metabolizable energy

  15. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’D • Table 3a: Medication

  16. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’D • Table 3b: Medication

  17. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’DParameters measured • Hatch weight, • 2month weight • 4month weight • 6month weight • 2month weight gain • 4month weight gain • 6month weight gain • Feed intake • FCR • Docility • Heterophil • Lymphocyte • Antibody titers

  18. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’DParameters measured • Eggs weight • Hen-day egg production • Age at First Egg • Percentage fertility • Percentage hatchability • Dressing percentage • Crude protein • Ash • Energy • Moisture • Pre-brooding survival • Post-brooding survival

  19. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’DParameters measured • Phenotypic and genetic variances • Genetic coefficient of variation, • Heritability • Genetic and phenotypic correlation • Genetic gain

  20. MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT’D • Statistical analysis • GLM procedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS for Windows, version 7). • The means were separated by using the PDIFF procedure of SAS (SAS, 2008)

  21. FIRST AND THIRD OBJECTIVES. • Average values of traits and docility The objectives were to: • Calculate average values of traits • Determine strain effects on all traits • Find effects of sex and season on all traits • Measure docility in birds

  22. FIRST AND THIRD OBJECTIVES CONT’D • Materials and methods • Birds The mean values of all the traits were obtained from records of 1530 birds reared over 3 year period (2015-2018). Records were taken on each bird from day old to 8 months

  23. FIRST AND THIRD OBJECTIVES CONT’D • Experimental design • Feeding, housing, medication, parameters measured and statistical analysis Discussed already

  24. FIRST AND THIRD OBJECTIVES CONT’D • The models considered were: • Yij= µ + Bi + eij(for strain effects) (ii) Yijk= µ + Si+ Tj + (ST)ij+ eij(for sex and seasonal effects)

  25. FIRST AND THIRD OBJECTIVES CONT’D • Measurement of docility on1 to 4 scale • = Non-aggressive (docile) - walks slowly, can be approached closely by humans, • = Slightly Aggressive - runs along boundaries, will stand in corner if humans stay away. • = Moderately Aggressive - look for exits and will run eagerly if humans move closer. • = Very Aggressive –, hitting gates and walls of the cage, avoids humans etc.

  26. RESULTS abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means , p = probability of main effects • BDWG =brooding daily weight gain,

  27. RESULTS CONT’D abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means p = probability of main effects

  28. RESULTS CONT’D Table 5: Effect of strain on reproductive traits of four strains of local Guinea fowls abcd Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means

  29. RESULTS CONT’D abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means

  30. RESULTS CONT’D abcd Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means

  31. DISCUSSIONS • Effect of Guinea fowl strains on production traits

  32. DISCUSSIONS CONT’D • Effect of Guinea fowl strains on production traits

  33. DISCUSSIONS CONT’D • Effect of Guinea fowl strains on reproductive traits

  34. DISCUSSIONS CONT’D • Effect of Guinea fowl strains on biochemical profile and dressing percentage

  35. DISCUSSIONS CONT’D • Table 4.2: Effect of Guinea fowl strains on docility and survival

  36. RESULTS abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. BDWG = brooding daily weight gain, R= rainy, S= season SEM= standard error of means p = probability of main effects

  37. RESULTS CONT’D abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. • R = rainy, S = season,SEM= standard error of means p = probability of main effects

  38. RESULTS CONT’D abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. P = parameters, R = rainy, S = season, SEM= standard error of means and p = probability of main effects

  39. RESULTS CONT’D • abcMeans bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. • P = parameters, R = rainy, S = season, SEM= standard error of means, BS = brooding survival and p = probability of main effects

  40. CONCLUSIONAND RECOMMENDATIONS • Pearl strains should be used to achieve higher productivity. • For better hatch weight, Keets should be hatched in the Minor rainy and dry seasons. • Guinea fowls use feed efficiently in minor rainy season and have better fertility in the dry season • Effect of 1:1 sex ratio should be investigated in Guinea fowls.

  41. SECOND OBJECTIVE • Determination of disease resistance in local Guinea fowls through the use of Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) as an indicator trait • Objectives • Determine whether SRBC could be an indicator trait for disease resistance • Determine strain and sex effects on antibody titers in local Guinea

  42. SECOND OBJECTIVE CONT’D • Objectives • Estimate SRBC concentration effect on antibody titers in local Guinea • Estimate effect of route of administration of SRBC antigen on antibody titers in local Guinea fowls

  43. SECOND OBJECTIVE CONT’D • Materials and methods • Three hundred and twenty (320) keets aged12 weeks old were used • 40 males and 40 females from each of the four strains

  44. SECOND OBJECTIVE CONT’D • Materials and methods • 4x2 factorial design (4= strains and 2= SRBC concentrations) was used • General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS for Windows, version 7. • Total antibody titers were measured by agglutination assays

  45. SECOND OBJECTIVE CONT’D Control Highest (HA) Plate 1: SRBC Hemaglutination (HA) test in local Guinea fowls.

  46. RESULTS • a–bMeans within a column for breed and sex with different superscripts differ at p<0.05.

  47. RESULTS CONT’D Titer Figure 2: Effect of route of SRBC antigen administration on antibody titers in local Guinea fowls Route (1= Intravenous; 2= Intramuscular)

  48. DISCUSSIONS • Effects of four strains, sex and route of inoculation on antibody titers of of local Guinea fowl inoculated with SRBC antigen

  49. CONCLUSION • SRBC antigen could potentially be used as an indicator trait for disease resistance in Guinea fowls. • Pearl have high potential for immune competence. • Antibody response to SRBC antigen was better in females than in males. • Intravenous injection was more effective • Post injection days and SRBC concentration did not influence antibody response.

  50. FORTH OBJECTIVE • Estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters • Objectives • Estimate genetic variation (diversity) in traits • Estimate heritability of traits • Estimate phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits