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China’s First Civilizations

China’s First Civilizations. Chapter 7, Section 1, page 224. Chapter 7, Section 1 Objectives. After this lesson, students will be able to: describe how rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape Chinese civilization.

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China’s First Civilizations

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  1. China’s First Civilizations Chapter 7, Section 1, page 224

  2. Chapter 7, Section 1 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • describe how rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape Chinese civilization. • explain how rulers known as the Shang became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies. • describe how Chinese rulers claimed the right to rule by a Mandate of Heaven.

  3. Why is China Important? • world’s largest population • one of the fastest growing economies in the world • experiencing major infrastructure growth • leader in sciences (computers & mathematics) • historically and culturally significant • communist government • a new superpower?

  4. China’s Geography – page 224 • Huang He (Yellow River) – flows from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean • particularly fertile due to loess • Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) – flows east across China and empties into the Yellow Sea

  5. China’s Geography – page 226 • Less than 1/10 of China’s land is arable (fit for farming) • Himalayas – southwest • Kunlun Shan & Tian Shan – western border • Gobi & Taklimakan Deserts • Gobi – a cold, rocky desert east of the Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan Mountains

  6. The Shang Dynasty – page 226 • The Huang He valley was the site of the first Chinese civilizations. • Xia dynasty (?) • Shang dynasty – founded c. 1750 B.C. • most historians use the rise of this dynasty as the beginning of Chinese civilization • made the city of Anyang China’s first capital city

  7. The Shang Dynasty – page 226 • Shang dynasty • strong monarchy • aristocracy (nobles whose wealth comes from the land they own) made of warlords and officials • large army • agricultural society (farmers could be pulled for other projects)

  8. Spirits and Ancestors – page 227 • spirits in mountains, rivers, etc. • ancestor worship • family was central to society • believed departed ancestors could bring good fortune and good luck • offerings made even today

  9. Telling the Future – page 228 • government and religion closely linked • oracle bones – first example of Chinese writing

  10. The Chinese Language – page 228 • pictographs – characters that stand for objects • ideographs – a character that joins two or more pictographs to represent an idea • advantage: people from all over could read = unity • disadvantage: too many characters too remember (needed to know 1,500 to be barely literate)

  11. Shang Artists – page 229 • bronze casting – the best-known Shang art form

  12. The Zhou Dynasty – page 229 • Wu Wang led a rebellion against the Shang, and created the Zhou dynasty (1045 B.C. – 256 B.C.). • dynasty lased for more than 800 years • developed the idea of the Mandate of Heaven

  13. What Was the Mandate of Heaven? – page 230 • mandate – a formal order • Mandate of Heaven – idea that the king had been chosen by heavenly order to rule; Zhou claimed that principle gave them the right to rule • catches: • Dao – the proper way kings were expected to rule • people had the right to overthrow an unjust king or one that has apparently lost the Mandate of Heaven • dynastic cycle

  14. The Dynastic Cycle in China

  15. New Tools and Trade – page 230 • iron • population boom • roads and canals • coined money introduced • silk

  16. The Zhou Empire Falls – page 231 • “Period of the Warring States” • invention of the saddle and stirrup allowed for mounted combat

  17. Chapter 7, Section 1 Questions • Between which two rivers is the heartland of China found? • Why is China’s arable land limited? • What is a dynasty? • What were oracle bones and how were they used? • What is the Mandate of Heaven and which dynasty used it as a justification for their rise to power? • How is the dynastic cycle connected to the Mandate of Heaven?

  18. Life in Ancient China Chapter 7, Section 2, page 233

  19. Chapter 7, Section 2 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • describe the three main social classes Chinese society, landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants. • explain how Chinese philosophies grew out of a need for order in China.

  20. Life in Ancient China – page 233 • Chinese social classes • tenant farmers – people pay rent by giving the landlord a portion of their crops

  21. What was Life Like in a Chinese Family? – page 234 • Family was the basic building block of Chinese society. • filial piety – practice that requires children to respect their parents and older relatives • The leader of the family was usually the oldest male.

  22. Who Was Confucius? – page 236 • Confucius – China’s first great teacher and thinker • goal: to bring peace to society • basic premise: people needed to have a sense of duty • Confucianism – taught that if each person does his or her duty, society as a whole will do well

  23. What Is Daoism? – page 238 • Laozi – the “Old Master”(?) founded Daoism • people should give up their worldly desires • turn to nature and the Dao • turn away from worldly concerns and live in peace with nature • Dao De Jing

  24. Confucius and Laozi – page 238

  25. What Is Legalism? – page 239 • Hanfeizi – thought people were naturally evil • developed Legalism – taught that people needed harsh laws and punishment to make them live rightly • strong ruler necessary • aristocrats liked Legalism

  26. Chinese Ethical Systems – page 239

  27. Chapter 7, Section 2 Questions • What is unique about the ancient Chinese social structure? • Define filial piety. • Name the founders of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. • Which philosophy was centered around a strong system of laws and punishments in order to keep society in order? • Compare Confucianism and Daoism.

  28. The Qin and Han Dynasties Chapter 7, Section 3, page 240

  29. Chapter 7, Section 3 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • describe the harsh methods Qin Shihuangdi used to unify and defend China. • describe how people were tested for jobs under the Han dynasty and how new inventions improved life for all Chinese. • explain how the Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome.

  30. Emperor Qin Shihuangdi – page 241 • Period of the Warring States – period of violence that made people look for a way to restore order • Qin Shihuangdi (sp) – “First Qin Emperor”(221 B.C.) • from the state of Qin (China) • establishes the Qin Dynasty (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)

  31. A Powerful Ruler – page 241 • Qin Shihuangdi • based his rule on the ideas of Legalism • eliminated opposition • burned books • instituted a practice called “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches” • created an autocracy – a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner

  32. A Powerful Ruler – page 242 • accomplishments • set standards for writing, law, currency, weights, and measures • over 4,000 miles of roads constructed • irrigation projects improved farm production • early Great Wall (one we know today built in the Ming Dynasty)

  33. A Powerful Ruler – page 242 • The Terracotta Army

  34. Why Did the People Rebel? – page 242 • Four years after Qin Shihuangdi’s death, the Qin dynasty was overthrown. • farmers, scholars, and aristocrats were all displeased with how he had ruled

  35. The Han Dynasty – page 244 • Liu Bang – founded the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – A.D. 220) • Han Wudi – wanted talented people to work in government; developed the civil service exam • population reaches 60 million under Han Wudi • expansion policy –”Martial Emperor”

  36. An Era of New Inventions – page 245 • waterwheels • iron drill bits • steel • paper • rudder • advances in medicine • acupuncture – treatment that is supposed to ease pain by sticking needles into the skin

  37. The Silk Road – page 246 • Silk Road – network of trade routes that stretched from China to southwest Asia • China exported silk, spices, tea, & porcelain • Zhang Qian – explored areas west of China; brought back stories of the Roman Empire

  38. Chapter 7, Section 3 Questions • Which of the doctrines discussed in Section 2 did Qin Shihuangdi follow? • Why was the Qin Dynasty overthrown? • Who founded the Han Dynasty? • What is the purpose of the civil service exam? • Give examples of items that the Chinese exported using the Silk Road.

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