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  1. Bellwork 3/10 * Week 10 Please turn your lab notebooks into TBG1. What are the two general major categories/sources of air pollution?2. Please include examples in your answers. Hint: Read page 526

  2. Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution

  3. Stationary and Mobile Sources of Air Pollution • Two Sources of Air Pollution 1. Stationary Sources: have a relatively fixed location • Point Sources: • Fugitive Sources: • Area Sources: 2. Mobile Sources: move from place to place while emitting pollutants • Ex) Airplanes

  4. General Effects of Air Pollution • Visual quality of the environment • Vegetation, Animals, Soil • Water Quality • Natural and Artificial Structures • Human Heath

  5. Human Health & Air Pollution

  6. Primary and Secondary Pollutants, Natural and Human • Primary Pollutants • Those emitted directly into the air • Hydrocarbons, particulates, etc. • Secondary Pollutants • Produced through reactions between primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds • Ozone

  7. Major Air Pollutants • Sulfur Dioxide (acid rain) • Nitrogen Dioxide / Nitrogen Oxide • Carbon Monoxide • Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants • Volatile Organic Compounds • Particulate Matter • Hydrogen Sulfide • Hydrogen Fluoride • Hazardous Gases • Lead

  8. Outdoor Air Pollutants – Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • Properties: colorless gas with irritating odor • Effects: produces acid rain (H2SO4), breathing difficulties, eutrophication due to sulfate formation, lichen and moss are indicators • Sources:burning high sulfur coal or oil, smelting or metals, paper manufacture • Class: sulfur oxides • EPA Standard: 0.3 ppm (annual mean) • Combines with water and NH4 to increase soil fertility

  9. Outdoor Air Pollutants – Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) • Properties: reddish brown gas, formed as fuel burnt in car, strong oxidizing agent, forms Nitric acid in air • Effects: acid rain, lung and heart problems, decreased visibility (yellow haze), suppresses plant growth • Sources: fossil fuels combustion, power plants, forest fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil • Class: Nitrogen oxides (NOx) • EPAStandard: 0.053 ppm

  10. Outdoor Air Pollutants – Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Properties: colorless, odorless, heavier than air, 0.0036% of atmosphere • Effects: binds tighter to Hb than O2 • Sources:incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. 60 - 95% from auto exhaust • Class: carbon oxides (CO2, CO) • EPAStandard: 9 ppm • 5.5 billion tons enter atmosphere/year

  11. Outdoor Air Pollutants – Ozone (O3) • Properties: colorless, unpleasant odor, major part of photochemical smog • Effects: lung irritant, damages plants, rubber, fabric, eyes, 0.1 ppm can lower PSN by 50% • Sources: Created by sunlight acting on NOx and VOC , cars, industry, gas vapors, chemical solvents, fuel combustion products • Class: photochemical oxidants

  12. Outdoor Air Pollutants – Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10) • Properties: particles suspended in air (<10 um) • Effects: lung damage, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic • Sources: burning coal or diesel, volcanoes, factories, unpaved roads, plowing, lint, pollen, spores, burning fields • Class: SPM: dust, soot, asbestos, lead, PCBs, dioxins, pesticides • EPA Standard: 50 ug/m3 (annual mean)

  13. Size of Selected Particulates

  14. Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)for several large countries

  15. Outdoor Air Pollutants – VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) • Properties: organic compounds that evaporate easily, usually aromatic • Effects: eye and respiratory irritants; carcinogenic; decreased visibility due to brown haze; liver, CNS, or kidney damage; damages plants • Sources: evaporation of solvents or fuels, fossil fuels, plants (largest source), aerosols, paint thinners, dry cleaning • Class: HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants) • Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors • 600 million tons of CFCs

  16. Outdoor Air Pollutants – Lead (Pb) • Properties: grayish metal • Effects: accumulates in tissue; affects kidneys, liver and nervous system (children most susceptible); mental retardation; possible carcinogen; 20% of inner city kids have [high] • Sources: particulates, smelters, batteries • Class: toxic or heavy metals • EPAStandard: 1.5 ug/m3 • 2 million tons enter atmosphere/year

  17. US Emissions of Six Major Air Pollutants Note that there have been significant reductions.

  18. Urban Air Pollution • Potential for Air Pollution Determined by: • Rate of emission • Downwind distance • Average wind speed • Elevation • Atmospheric Inversion: • Occurs when warmer air is found above cooler air and it poses a particular problem when there is a stagnant air mass

  19. Factors that influence Air Pollution formation and intensity • Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity) • Topography (hills and mountains) • Population density • Amount of industry • Fuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, power • Weather: rain, snow,wind • Buildings (slow wind speed) • Mass transit used • Economics

  20. Questions1. How would you define smog?2. What are the two types of smog and how do they form? Hint: Read pages 540-541

  21. Smog • Smog • A mixture between smoke and fog that produces unhealthy urban air • Two Types • Sulfurous Smog / Industrial Smog / Fossil Fuels • Photochemical Smog / Sunlight & Pollutants

  22. Formation of Industrial Smog

  23. Formation of Industrial Smog

  24. Formation of Industrial Smog

  25. Formation of Photochemical Smog

  26. Formation of Photochemical Smog

  27. Pollution Control • Particulates • Automobiles • Sulfur Dioxide • Coal Gasification: converts coal to gas to remove sulfur • Scrubbing: gas desulfurization

  28. Air Pollution: Legislation and Standards • Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 • Comprehensive regulations enacted by U.S congress that address acid rain, toxic emissions, ozone depletion and automobile exhaust • Air Quality Standards • Attempt to control air pollution • Tougher Standards for PM 2.5 and Ozone • Air Quality Index

  29. Specific Air Pollution Treatment Technology • Traditional • Move factory to remote location • Build taller smokestack so wind blows pollution elsewhere • New • Biofiltration : vapors pumped through soil where microbes degrade • High-energy destruction: high-voltage electricity • Membrane separation: diffusion of organic vapors through membrane • Oxidation: High temperature combustor

  30. Specific Air Pollution Treatment Technology Continued… • New continued… • Vapor phase carbon absorption: gases pumped through series of carbon filled canisters which absorb contaminants • Electrostatic precipitators: Electrostatically charged surfaces attracts particles • Sulfur removal: mix crushed limestone with fuel • Nitrogen oxide control: staged burners or catalytic converters • Hydrocarbon control: closed system to prevent release before treatment with afterburners • Hybrid, electric and hydrogen powered vehicles

  31. Air Pollution Indoor Air Pollution

  32. Pathways, Processes and Driving Forces • Chimney Effect (Stack Effect) • Process whereby warmer air rises in buildings to upper levels and is replaced in the lower portion of the building by outdoor air drawn through a variety of openings, such as windows doors or cracks in the foundation or walls

  33. Sick Building Syndrome • A condition associated with an indoor environment that appears to be unhealthy • The symptoms people report cannot be traced to any one particular cause

  34. Environmental Tobacco Smoke • Secondhand smoke • 2 sources • Smoke exhaled by smokers • Smoke emitted from burning tobacco • The most hazardous indoor pollutant

  35. QuestionsRead a closer look 25.1 (p 562-3) 1. Please explain why radon is a problem?2. Is radon a large hazard? If so why? If not, why? Hint: Read pages 540-541

  36. Radon Gas • Radon • Naturally occurring radioactive gas • Colorless, odorless, tasteless • Only identified through proper testing • Health hazard when leaked into homes • Exposure is associated with lung cancer

  37. How RadonEnters Houses Please read page 574 and explain how radon enters houses.

  38. Major Indoor Pollutants

  39. Major Indoor Pollutants Continued…

  40. Major Indoor Pollutants Continued… http://www.metricmind.com/ac_honda/main.htm