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  1. Concentration David Joun, Cindy Nguyen, Xarier Zamudio

  2. What is it to Concentrate To direct or draw toward a common center; focus. Being able to direct attention to relevant and important information Concentration The act or process of concentrating, especially the fixing of close, undivided attention.

  3. Concentration Lapse • Performance progressively deteriorating and when it seems impossible to regain control • An example of this is “Choking”

  4. Examples of “Choking” • Preparing a great deal for an exam only to perform poorly during the day of the exam • Shooting a game winning free-throw only to miss it due to nerves and anxiety • Going for the game winning hole at the PGA master’s but missing the hole • Missing the game winning field goal

  5. Experience of Concentration Lapse

  6. Approaches to understand Concentration and Attention • Informational Processing • Psycho-Sociological Approach • Psycho-Physiological Approach

  7. What is informational processing overall

  8. Informational Processing • Selective Attention • "process by which certain information from the internal or external environment enters the information-processing system while other information is screened out or ignored."

  9. Informational Processing • We're constantly given too much information from internal and external environment. • Selective Attention necessary so only "few stimuli are processed" • selection is "voluntary" or "involuntary"

  10. Informational Processing • main role in both learning and performing sports • stimuli essential for a particular performance change as function of practice and skill improvement • For example in wrestling one of the most important things is the take down aside for the ground game, thus one will selectively practice that

  11. Informational Processing • conscious process to smooth unconscious process • control and automatic processing • control processing: "used to process novel or inconsistent information“ • slow, effortful, capacity limited, controlled by individual • EX: typewriting

  12. automatic processing: "performance of well-learned skills“ • fast, effortless, not under direct conscious control • EX. skills developed over yrs of practice; a golfer swinging club after years of practice puts less effort and attention to it then a beginner

  13. Attention Capacity • "control processing is limited in amount of information that can be processed at one time“ • one complex task at hand at one time; hard to focus attention on 2 sources of information at one time • multi-tasking may impair performance

  14. Restrictions • structural capacity limitations • central capacity limitations

  15. structural: 2 tasks performed at same time using same receptor or effector systems • EX. listening to starter's gun at the same time listening to a voice in the crowd

  16. capacity: 2 tasks compete for limited central information-processing capacity simultaneously

  17. capacity limitations of automatic processing are less restrictive compared to control processing

  18. Attentional Alertness

  19. Psycho-sociological Approach • Distraction theories • Automatic Functioning • Attentional Style

  20. Distraction Theories • "focus on loss of attention caused by factors that attract attention to task-irrelevant cues." • An athlete running a marathon • Lose concentration, lose focus and performance suffers

  21. Distraction Theories • Worry • Anxiety • worry as an emotional state distracts attention and thus can explain the negative effects of test anxiety on performance • anxious individuals focus attention on task-irrelevant thoughts and ignore critical task cues • Not focusing on what is important

  22. Distraction Theories • Defeating thought • Negative Thinking • Positive Thinking • Taking a Test • Negative “I am not going to pass” • Positive “Cant wait to party this weekend”

  23. Distraction Theories • self-awareness • While performing, attending to oneself not focusing • some say "it is impossible to attend to oneself and to the environment at the same time" • Self Talk • Outside environment • Cameras, pressure

  24. Automatic Functioning • relates to automatic processing • Typing, Texting, Piano • In competitive situations, when individuals realize importance of correct skill execution, they attempt to ensure success by consciously changing it • normally under automatic processing control now under control processing mechanism

  25. Attentional Style

  26. Attentional Style • Broad-external: requires individual to focus on a wide area of external environment • Volleyball, Basketball • Broad-internal: attention is focused internally on a variety of strategies and past experience • Coach of a football team

  27. Attentional Style • Narrow-external: appropriate for activities that require individual to focus on a narrow aspect of the external environment; e.g. golf ball • Golf, Bowling, Football Quarterback • Narrow-internal: attending to specific images or cognitive cues • Body building, Marathon running

  28. Attentional Style • may affect performance in certain situations if athlete's style is incompatible with the attentional requirements of that situation • i.e., Football, baseball, race car driving

  29. Attentional Style • There are tools to measure attention which assess strengths and weaknesses • TAIS-Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style • Scale only Measure the Narrow-Broad Dimension but not Internal-External dimensions

  30. Psycho-Physiological Approach • Examples of Psycho-Physiological aspects concerning concentration and attention • Can’t focus because your hungry • Can’t focus because your sleepy • Can’t focus because your sick • Even having to go to the bathroom

  31. Psycho-Physiological Approach • This approach involves the investigation of component parts of auto regulation: • EEG, evoked response potentials (ERPs), and Heart Rate

  32. Pro Golfers and Putting • Elite Shooters • Professional Athletes

  33. Archers and elite shooters have been tested using EEG • As performance increased the profile of the EEG resembled elite archers • Heart decreased • Too much activity of the alpha waves gave a poorer performance

  34. Things that can improve the physiological response • Breathing • Progressive muscular relaxation • Autogenic training • Meditation