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GEOG 3762 Geography of Europe

GEOG 3762 Geography of Europe

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GEOG 3762 Geography of Europe

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  1. GEOG 3762Geography of Europe Fall 2008 Dr. Olaf Kuhlke Week 2

  2. Review • Ideas of Europe • What is Europe about? • What distinguishes it? • What makes it different from the United States? • T.R. Reid • Reactions?

  3. European Landscapes • Physical Landscapes • Climate • Geomorphology • Hydrography • Cultural Landscapes • Cultural Attributes • Religion • Selected Aspects of the Cultural Landscape

  4. Physical Landscapes

  5. European Climates What’s significant about European Climates? • Location of Continent • Further to the North than US America • Climate classification: Koeppen • Gulf Stream • North Atlantic Circulation • Climate Change debate • Predominant Weather Patterns • Grosswetterlagen(GWL) – Weather Patterns

  6. What makes the European Weather?

  7. What makes the European Weather?

  8. Contemporary European Climates

  9. Contemporary European Climates • A Climates = Tropical • B Climates = Subtropical • C Climates = Temperate • D Climates = Continental • E Climates = Polar • Subgroups indicate season changes in precipitation and temperature variation

  10. Contemporary European Climates Dominant European Climate Types • Cfb = Maritime Temperate = Fluctuating weather patterns, often overcast skies, high humidity, cool summers, warm winters • Dfb = Warm Summer Continental = Often Dryer summer than Cfb, cool, wet winter • Csa = Mediterranean Climate = Hot, Dry Summer, Wet, cool, rainy winter

  11. The Gulf Stream Effect – Real or Imagined?

  12. The Gulf Stream – North Atlantic Circulation

  13. The Jet Stream Effect – Typical Winter Air Movements

  14. Grosswetterlagen Predominant Weather Patterns • Dependent upon north/south movement of the Polar Front • Position of Highs and Lows over Europe • Drive or block the movement of Low Pressure Systems from the Atlantic

  15. Contemporary European Landscapes

  16. Contemporary European Landscapes General Divisions of the European Landscape • Mountains • Orogeny • Caledonian • Hercynian • Alpine

  17. Contemporary European Landscapes General Divisions of the European Landscape • Caledonian • Northern Europe • Norway, Sweden, UK and Ireland • Cambrian (542-488 mya)

  18. Contemporary European Landscapes General Divisions of the European Landscape • Hercynnian • Central Europe • Germany, France, Spain • Silurian (443-416 mya) to Carboniferous (359-299 mya)

  19. Contemporary European Landscapes

  20. Contemporary European Landscapes General Division of the European Landscape • Alpine • Southern Europe • Alps, Pyrenees, Dinaric Alps • Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria • Tertiary (65-1.8 mya)

  21. Contemporary European Landscapes

  22. Contemporary European Landscapes Impact of Glaciation • European Lowlands • Glacial Remnants • Northern Europe • Moraines • Terminal moraines • Loess Belt • Windblown glacial outwash deposits

  23. Contemporary European Landscapes

  24. General Hydrography of Europe

  25. Cultural Landscapes

  26. Overview • Introduction • How should geographers study religion in Europe? • Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe • Prehistoric • The Greeks and Romans • Jewish Europe • Christian Europe • Islamic Europe • Examining European sacred places

  27. How should geographers study religion in Europe? They should focus on • Origins, diffusion and distribution • Spatial characteristics of individual places and movements • Significance, drawing power • Pilgrimage paths, spatial connections • Sharing of and struggling over religious space

  28. How do geographers study religion? Origins, diffusion and distribution • Origins • Life, death and place of religious teachers • Founders • Missionaries • Saints • Supernatural events • Miracles, apparitions

  29. How do geographers study religion? Origins, diffusion and distribution • Diffusion • Paths of conversion • Hierarchy • Networks of modern religious movement • Distribution • Expansion • Drawing power • Networks and overlap

  30. How do geographers study religion? Spatial characteristics of individual places • Sacrality • Why is it sacred? • Hierophany • Encounter with a manifestation of the sacred - miracle, apparition, vision • Life of founder or saint • Node of larger movement • How did the sacred manifest itself? • How sacred is it? • Drawing power

  31. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Prehistoric Europe • Animistic • Nature religion • “Pagan” myths • Examples • The cave at Lascaux • Stonehenge and the Celtic Druids • Athens as a model ofGreek cosmology

  32. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Prehistoric Europe • Animistic - The cave at Lascaux (17000 BP)

  33. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Prehistoric Europe • Nature religions • Stonehenge and druidic sun cult

  34. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Prehistoric Europe • Nature religions • Stonehenge and druidic sun cult

  35. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Prehistoric Europe • Pagan religious systems • Athens and Greek cosmology - The Golden Ratio

  36. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Jewish Europe • End of Jewish State under Roman Empire - 66CE • Diaspora development • Coexistence in early Christian Europe (4th Century AD onwards) • Heavy persecution in Christian Europe • Crusades beginning in 11th Century • Expulsions - Inquisition • Eastern European Tolerance • Poland • Enlightenment reintegration • Emancipation Period in 1700 -1800s

  37. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Jewish Europe • Renewed Anti-semitism from late 1800s onwards • Racial (Racist) Science • Zionism • Large-scale emigration • Holocaust • Return to Europe after WW II • Russian and Eastern European Jews • Remaining anti-semitism • The Holocaust Memorial (Berlin)

  38. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Christian Europe • Apostle Paul • Birth of Christianity • Gnostic and Literalist Christians • Christianity unifies Europe • Literalist dominance • Edict of Milan 313 • State religion • Christianity splits Europe • Council of Nicea 325 AD • Series of Ecumenical Councils • Creedal difference • Great Schism 1054 split Latin from Orthodox Churches

  39. The Roman Empire at the height of its political power and maximum geographic expansion The gradual spread of Christianity to Europe

  40. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Christian Europe • Christianity splits Europe • 1517 Martin Luther • Reformation movement begins • Calvin, Zwingly • 16/17th Century Church of England • Arrival of LDS in Europe - 19th Century • Results • Europe is predominantly Christian Continent today, yet very diverse denominations exist • Most European nation states have “state churches” • Certain brands of Christianity are officially sanctioned

  41. The Roman Empire after its split in 330, divided into an Eastern and a Western Section The fragmented Western Empire at the beginning of Frankish expansion

  42. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe Islamic Europe • Birth of Islam • 622 AD • Advancement of Islam • Spain • Ottoman Empire • Challenges to Christianity • Questions of Church vs. State in Islam • Sharia • Example of Turkey • Modern Controversies