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  1. Chapter Introduction Section 1The Republicans Take Power Section 2The Louisiana Purchase Section 3A Time of Conflict Section 4The War of 1812 Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Contents Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  2. Introduction 1 Click the Speaker buttonto replay the audio.

  3. Chapter Objectives Section 1: The Republicans Take Power • Discuss how the election of 1800 was resolved. Introduction 2 • Explain how the Supreme Court was strengthened. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  4. Chapter Objectives Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase • Discuss how the United States expanded in the early 1800s. Introduction 3 • Review the expeditions of explorers such as Lewis and Clark. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  5. Chapter Objectives Section 3: A Time of Conflict • Explain why Tecumseh built a Native American confederacy. Introduction 4 • Discuss why the War Hawks wanted to go to war. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  6. Chapter Objectives Section 4: The War of 1812 • Describe how the British seized and set fire to Washington, D.C. Introduction 5 • Explain why Andrew Jackson fought a battle after the war was over. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  7. Why It Matters In 1801 the Democratic-Republican Party took control of the nation’s government. The Federalists–the party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams–were now on the sidelines and played the role of critics to the Republican administration. Introduction 6

  8. The Impact Today Politicians today operate within the party system that took shape at that time. Introduction 7 • While the two main parties have changed, each still worked to win votes and gain power. • If the people vote to change the party in power, the newly elected representatives take office peacefully and the government continues. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  9. Introduction 8

  10. Introduction 9

  11. End of Introduction

  12. Guide to Reading Main Idea The election of 1800 marked the transfer of power from one political party to another through a democratic election. Section 1-1 Key Terms • laissez-faire • customs duties • judicial review Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  13. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information As you read the section, use a diagram like the one shown on page 278 of your textbook to identify ways Republicans tried to reduce the role of government. Section 1-2 Read to Learn • how the election deadlock of 1800 was resolved. • how John Marshall strengthened the Supreme Court. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  14. Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy Jefferson believed that a large federal government threatened liberty. Section 1-3

  15. Abigail Adams in the unfinished White House Section 1-4 Click the Speaker buttonto replay the audio.

  16. The Election of 1800 • The election campaign of 1800 between Adams/Pinckney and Jefferson/Burr was very different from those of today. Section 1-5 • Candidates and their friends wrote letters to leading citizens and newspapers to spread their views. • The Federalists and Republicans fought a bitter letter-writing campaign. (pages 278–279) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  17. The Election of 1800 (cont.) • The election was deadlocked. • Both Jefferson and Burr received 73 electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide the election. Section 1-6 • The Federalists decided to support Burr to prevent the election of Jefferson. • Hamilton distrusted Burr but was not a friend of Jefferson either. • Finally, at Hamilton’s request, one Federalist voted against Burr, and Jefferson became president and Burr vice president. (pages 278–279) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  18. The Election of 1800 (cont.) • To avoid another election deadlock, Congress passed the Twelfth Amendment in 1803. Section 1-7 • It required electors to vote for the president and vice president on separate ballots. (pages 278–279) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  19. The Election of 1800 (cont.) • Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated on March 4, 1801. • In his Inaugural Address, Jefferson tried to close the gap between the political parties. • His goals included: Section 1-8 • “a wise and frugal government” • “support of state governments in all their rights” (pages 278–279) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  20. The Election of 1800 (cont.) • Jefferson was a proponent of states’ rights. • He believed strong states would best protect freedom and that a large federal government would threaten liberty. • He also believed in laissez-faire, a policy in which government plays a small role in the economic concerns of a country. Section 1-9 (pages 278–279) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  21. The Election of 1800 (cont.) Section 1-10 Why were the election campaigns of Adams and Jefferson different from campaigns of today? In 1800 transportation was limited. The best way to reach a large group of constituents was through letter writing. (pages 278–279) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  22. Jefferson’s Policies • Jefferson surrounded himself with men who shared his Republican principles. • His cabinet had James Madison as secretary of state and Albert Gallatin as secretary of the treasury. • Under Jefferson the government allowed the unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts to expire and repealed the Naturalization Act. Section 1-11 (page 280) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  23. Jefferson’s Policies (cont.) • Jefferson and Gallatin reduced the huge national debt. • They cut back on military expenses by reducing the size of the army and navy. • Jefferson and Gallatin also persuaded Congress to repeal federal internal taxes, including the whiskey tax. • The government funds would come from customs duties, or taxes on imported goods, and from the sale of Western lands. Section 1-12 (page 280) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  24. Jefferson’s Policies (cont.) • The number of federal government employees was small under Jefferson. • He believed that the responsibility of government should be limited to delivering the mail, collecting customs duties, and conducting a census every 10 years. Section 1-13 (page 280) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  25. Jefferson’s Policies (cont.) Section 1-14 Jefferson was a wealthy landowner and a slaveholder, although he believed in individual freedoms. He was also an excellent practical politician. Do you think that his views of government would have been different had he not been wealthy? Possible answer: Jefferson did not let his wealth interfere with his principles. Jefferson cared about people. (page 280) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  26. Jefferson and the Courts • The Federalists controlled the court system even though Jefferson was a Republican. Section 1-15 • The Federalists passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 before Jefferson took office. • Prior to leaving office, Adams made hundreds of appointments to the courts. • He also appointed John Marshall, his secretary of state, as chief justice of the United States after Chief Justice Ellsworth resigned. (pages 280–281) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  27. Jefferson and the Courts (cont.) • Adams and Marshall worked around the clock to process the papers (commissions) for these last-minute “midnight judges.” Section 1-16 • A few of the commissions had not been processed when Jefferson took office on March 4. • Jefferson told Madison, his secretary of state, to hold them. • One of these was for William Marbury. (pages 280–281) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  28. Jefferson and the Courts (cont.) • The Supreme Court heard the case of Marbury v. Madison. • Marbury went right to the Supreme Court to force delivery of his commission. • Marbury claimed that he had jurisdiction as a result of the Judiciary Act of 1789. • Marshall turned down his claim. Section 1-17 (pages 280–281) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  29. Jefferson and the Courts (cont.) • Marshall said that the Constitution did not give the Supreme Court jurisdiction to decide Marbury’s case. Section 1-18 • This was the first time that judicial reviewwas used. • Judicial review is the right of the Supreme Court to review and rule on acts of other branches of government. • Today judicial review is a basic part of our government and is a way to check and balance the other branches of the government. (pages 280–281) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  30. Jefferson and the Courts (cont.) • Under Justice Marshall, who served as chief justice until 1835, the Supreme Court became an equal partner in government due to judicial review. Section 1-19 • Under Marshall the court usually upheld the power of the national government over the rights of states. • The Marshall court used many Federalist beliefs in the American system of government. (pages 280–281) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  31. Jefferson and the Courts (cont.) Section 1-20 Why did John Adams make so many judicial appointments in the final hours of his presidency? Adams, along with Chief Justice Marshall, attempted to process the commissions for judicial appointments until the final hours so that the court system would be full of “Federalist thinking” judges when Jefferson took office. Adams did not win the presidency, but he did have a large impact on the courts. Presidents through history have made an impact as well by their Supreme Court appointments because justices serve for life or until they are too ill to serve the country. (pages 280–281) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  32. Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. the right of the Supreme Court to determine if a law violates the Constitution __ 2. policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation’s economy __ 3. taxes on foreign imported goods A. laissez-faire B. customs duties C. judicial review C Section 1-21 A B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

  33. Checking for Understanding Reviewing Facts Explain how Jefferson cut government spending. Section 1-22 He cut the size of the army and navy, reduced the national debt, and kept the number of government workers low. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  34. Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy How did the judicial branch under Jefferson serve as a check on the executive and legislative branches? Section 1-23 With the establishment of judicial review, the Supreme Court could review and rule on acts of the other branches of government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  35. Critical Thinking Identifying Central Issues How was the deadlock in the presidential election of 1800 finally resolved? Section 1-24 The House of Representatives decided the election. Hamilton swayed the vote in Jefferson’s favor. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  36. Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Architecture Examine the photograph of Monticello on page 279 of your textbook. Who lived there? What do you think gives Monticello its unique look? Explain. Section 1-25 Thomas Jefferson lived at Monticello. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  37. Expository Writing A letter of recommendation is written to discuss the positive qualities of a person. Write a letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson about John Marshall. Address Marshall’s skills and leadership qualities. Section 1-26

  38. End of Section 1

  39. Guide to Reading Main Idea The Louisiana Purchase opened a vast area to exploration and settlement. Section 2-1 Key Terms • Conestoga wagon • secede Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  40. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Classifying Information As you read, re-create the diagram on page 282 of your textbook and describe the areas that Lewis and Clark, and Zebulon Pike explored. Section 2-2 Read to Learn • how the United States expanded in the early 1800s. • how Lewis and Clark led an expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  41. Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Geography and History The purchase of the Louisiana Territory doubled the nation’s size. Section 2-3

  42. Conestoga wagon Section 2-4 Click the Speaker buttonto replay the audio.

  43. Western Territory • Settlers in the less settled areas of the Northwest Territory and in Kentucky and Tennessee were pioneers. Section 2-5 • They loaded their belongings onto Conestoga wagons and made the long, tiring journey over the Appalachian Mountains to the area west of the Mississippi River known as the Louisiana Territory. • The Louisiana Territory, a large area, belonged to Spain. • The region extended from New Orleans in the south, west to the Rocky Mountains. (pages 282–283) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  44. Western Territory (cont.) • It was undefined to the north. • Many pioneers settled near the rivers that fed into the upper Mississippi River. • The Spanish allowed them to sail on the lower Mississippi and trade in New Orleans. • This access allowed farmers to unload goods in New Orleans and then ship these goods to markets in the East. Section 2-6 (pages 282–283) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  45. Western Territory (cont.) • In 1802 Spain changed its policy and refused to allow American goods to move into or past New Orleans. Section 2-7 • Jefferson confirmed that Spain had transferred the Louisiana Territory to France in a secret agreement. • The United States was surprised and fearful that Napoleon Bonaparte, France’s leader, wanted to increase his empire in Europe and the Americas. (pages 282–283) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  46. Western Territory (cont.) • Jefferson authorized Robert Livingston, the new minister to France, to offer as much as $10 million for New Orleans and West Florida. Section 2-8 (pages 282–283)

  47. Western Territory (cont.) • Because of unrest in Santo Domingo (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Napoleon had to cancel his plans to create an empire in America. Section 2-9 • He sent in troops to crush a revolt against French rule. • Toussaint-Louverture, a former enslaved African, led the revolt. • He helped drive the British and Spanish from the island and end slavery there. • The French captured Toussaint-Louverture but did not regain the island. (pages 282–283) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  48. Western Territory (cont.) Section 2-10 Why was the Louisiana Territory important to Americans? It was a large area of land that provided space for settlers to begin a new life in the West. Because of its proximity to the Mississippi River, farmers had a way to transport their goods and make money from the markets in the East. When Spain, who owned the land, refused American access to or past the port of New Orleans, it became even more important for Americans to continue to have access to the territory and use the Mississippi River for transport. (pages 282–283) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  49. The Nation Expands • America bought the Louisiana Territory from France. • The French needed money to finance Napoleon’s plans for war against Britain, so while the American diplomats were in France, Talleyrand informed them that the entire Louisiana Territory was for sale. • Monroe and Livingston negotiated a price of $15 million for the territory. • With this territory, the size of the United States doubled. Section 2-11 (pages 283–285) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.