Everyone Plays Inclusive Physical Education Classes Presented by the IWK & AVDHA SCHOOL THERAPY TEAMS
Who are we? School Therapy team from the IWK Health Centre & AVDHA Physiotherapists and Occupational Therapists Consultative, collaborative team
What does a School Therapy Team do? Work collaboratively with students, their families, school staff, communities and organizations to enable participation in meaningful activities that individuals need to do and want to do in their everyday lives, including participation in physical education class. Occupational Therapists, focus on occupational performance of students within various environments doing their functional daily routines (self-care, productivity & leisure). Physiotherapists focus on functional mobility in and around the school. This allows the student to participate and be integrated into his/her environment to his/her optimal potential. You may be asked if we can observe a specific child in your class. This assists us in assessing their movement, behaviour, attention, social interaction etc
If you would like….. • School Therapy Services you should be able to access OT/PT services through your own health district but it will look differently in each district • We also have a couple of Gym Packages ( Adapted Equipment and Adapted Sports Ideas ) If you would like a copy of these please contact Nick Warzee (e-mail address on back of Therapy Services brochure on TIENET)
What is your overall philosophy for a student with a disability in gym class?
How do you achieve this? The primary goal of inclusive physical education is to engage every child and meet his or her individualized needs in a supportive environment
You think creatively about what the student needs and the skill you are trying to teach You use your own expertise/knowledge to modify and adapt an activity You use trial and error You think outside the box You can consult with other teachers around pre-teaching the activity You have the opportunity to attend IPP meetings or have input into the IPP You can consult with us if you require more support
How can’t we support you? We don’t have magic wands! We apply the same process you do which involves the same principles Mind you Two heads are better than one!
How Can We Support You? Knowledge of the medical and health factors that impact how a child with a disability participates in gym class Knowledge of a child’s developmentally appropriate ability for their cognitive level Knowledge of sensory processing challenges and how it impacts behaviour in gym class The ability to liaise with other services within AVH, the community and the IWK Knowledge of what is going on at other schools in other gym classes Education
What would you do if… You had a child in your class who presents as “clumsy” (potentially with DCD), has motor planning difficulties and is trying to hit a birdie with a badminton racquet?
Suggestions • Equipment adaptations – balloons instead of birdie, heavier birdie, colored birdie, birdie hanging from a string, short handled racquet, larger headed racquet) • Game adaptations – smaller court size, lower net, wider net, more time to work on skill • Co-op approach – ask, don’t tell • Pre-teaching of the skill • Break the skill down into components • Modelling • Useful web site is www.canchild.ca
The CO-OP approach focuses on teaching the child how to use cognitive strategies to improve performance of tasks that are a problem for that child • The child chooses their own goals (what they want to achieve) and problem-solves (what can I do to make the task easier?) • This strategy can then potentially be used in all areas of their life
What would you do if… You had a child in your class who has hemiplegic cerebral palsy and is working on skipping rope?
Suggestions • Equipment adaptations – cut or fold rope in half, heavier rope, coloured rope, rope that makes a sound to help with timing • Tie the rope to the wall • Pre-teaching ( school and home) • Use co-op approach • Break it down into steps
What would you do if… You had a child in your class with spastic quadriplegia who uses a wheelchair and you are working on soccer skills?
Suggestions • Equipment adaptations – larger / lighter / coloured ball, tape a bumper to the front of wheelchair • Environment adaptations – smaller field dimensions, EA support • Work on some specific skills eg. Throw ins from the side. Directional intent of the ball • If appropriate verbally test the knowledge of the skills required to play and the rules of the game.
What would you do if… You had a child in your class who has a diagnosis of Autism and was having difficulty participating in gym class?
Suggestions • Equipment adaptations – textured ball, coloured ball, ball with a sound, grab ball with beehive structure, ball with a tail • Consider the environment – visual, auditory, tactile implications • Identification of critical skills necessary for success for the chosen outcome • Pre-teaching of critical skills needed for success
Suggestions • Social stories, visual cue of the task, order of the class (schedule / routine) • Prime students as to what is going to be happening in gym class before they arrive • Ascertain whether the child cannot do the task because they physically lack the skill to do it or they did not understand what they were being asked to do
Suggestions • Communication between the Phys Ed teacher and EAs as to what the critical skills are that require explicit instruction and pre teaching • Select equipment based on the dominant senses demonstrated by the child eg, some kids like to smell things, others are interested in objects with wheels, others like strings
Suggestions • Use of a peer tutor. Students with autism learn well from models. This also assists in social interaction and turn taking. • Wait at least 5 seconds after giving an instruction. It takes a while for he/she to figure out what the instruction meant. • Try not to ask if they want to do something when there is no choice eg. Do you want to do your warm ups?
What would you do if… You had a child in your class with high distractibility and difficulty following directions
Suggestions • try these suggestions • like throwing the ball to the noise (a shaker or small instrument) • running along a designated, broad, coloured line to stay on track and decrease the need for redirection • using a shiny/bright soccer ball to improve focus on task • using a small ball with a tail to improve catching skills • standing on a taped rope to throw baskets • You could also implement some movement breaks .......
Movement breaks • Movement breaks are scheduled opportunities for Powerful and Predictable activities placed frequently throughout the day. These breaks feed the system that help the child get in the “ just right “ state for learning. This learning includes their time in gym class. If a child is distracted and unfocused prior to attending gym class they may not benefit from the benefits of physical activity
“Time in vs. time out” Rather than sitting a child out on the bench if they have a negative behaviour, you should try to structure some specific physical activity instead that will promote more self regulation. For example you could get the child to do some quick powerful, predictable movements eg: jumping jacks, burpees or rocket jumps. If an EA is involved they could facilitate this and also teach the activity prior to the class
From John Ratey “Exercise is mainly for the brain, second for the body” “Exercise is not burning off energy, it’s turning on the brain” From a study by John Ratey: with exercise there is an increase in development of the hippocampus (memory and learning)
Resources IWK & AVDHA School Therapy Team IWK Recreation Therapy Team (Can be a valuable resource – lend out adapted equipment – have a provincial mandate) Adapted Sports Ideas Package Adapted Equipment Package
Other Resources “Spark” by John Ratey Dr. Meghann Lloyd is a researcher who looks at strategies for developing Fundamental Movement Skills in children with physical and/or intellectual disabilities www.sons.ca – Active Start kit Athletics' Canada has a program developed that teaches fundamentals called "Run, Jump Throw" that has recently been adapted for children with physical disabilities through the Canadian Paralympics Committee APSEA -- Very knowledgeable about adapting physical education for the visually impaired www.canchild.ca