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Introduction to biofuels

Introduction to biofuels

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Introduction to biofuels

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  1. Topic 6, Section A Introduction to biofuels

  2. Learning outcomes This presentation will introduce you to biofuels and their relationship to forestry. You will also learn about the implications for investments in the forestry sector. Topic 6, Section A, slide 2 of 38

  3. Outline • Terminology and typology of biofuels • Examples of tree-based biofuels • Markets and market trends for biofuels • Interaction with global commodity markets • Biofuel policies in some countries Topic 6, Section A, slide 3 of 38

  4. Definition Biofuels are: • Solid, liquid, or gas fuel based on biological material Topic 6, Section A, slide 4 of 38

  5. Types • First generationbiofuels are made from sugar, starch,vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology • Second generationbiofuels are made from a variety of non-food crops, including waste biomass, using biomass-to-liquid technology • Third generationbiofuels are made from algae Topic 6, Section A, slide 5 of 38

  6. Biodiesel • Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe • It is produced from oils or fats (such as animal fats and soy) using transesterification • Biodiesel is a liquid similar in composition to petro-diesel • Its chemical name is fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) ester (FAME) • Oils are mixed with sodium hydroxide and methanol (or ethanol) and the chemical reaction produces biodiesel (FAME) and glycerol. Topic 6, Section A, slide 6 of 38

  7. Bioalcohols • Biologically produced alcohols include ethanol, the most common, and propanol and butanol • They are produced by fermentation of sugars and/or starches - wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses, potato and fruit waste • Cellulosic ethanol production uses non-food crops or inedible waste products, which has less of an impact on food supply • Sometimes bioalcohols are made from products that have disposal problems such as citrus peels or sawdust Topic 6, Section A, slide 7 of 38

  8. Biogas • Biogas is produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes • It can be produced from biodegradable waste materials or energy crops • The solid by-product, digestate, can be used as fuel or fertiliser • Biogas contains methane and can be recovered from industrial anaerobic digesters and mechanical biological treatment systems • Landfill biogas is a less clean form of biogas which is produced naturally in landfills Topic 6, Section A, slide 8 of 38

  9. Various types of biofuels Sectors Biofuel sources Fuel types Uses Topic 6, Section A, slide 9 of 38

  10. Topic 6, Section A, slide 10 of 38

  11. Topic 6, Section A, slide 11 of 38

  12. Examples of tree-based biofuels:palm oil • Palm oil is very productive at 5000 litres per hectare • It has a high melting point • Grown in humid tropics, palm oil is edible and has a huge international market • There is concern about the conversion of tropical forests - especially peat forests - into palm oil plantations • The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil was established to reduce the negative image of palm oil • Unilever will be using sustainable oil from the year 2010 Topic 6, Section A, slide 12 of 38

  13. Examples of tree-based biofuels: Jatrophacurcas • Jatrophacurcas is a non-edible oil that grows in drier areas • It is the oil of choice for biodiesel production in India • A relatively high oil production is possible, but this varies with use of irrigation and fertiliser • Jatropha is only competitive with other crops in situations where there are high international oil prices coupled with lower food prices Topic 6, Section A, slide 13 of 38

  14. Jatrophacurcas • Jatropha can grow in wastelands and is considered an excellent source of biodiesel by the Indian government. • Cultivation is a crucial component of India’s energy policy • Large plots of wasteland for cultivation will provide employment for India’s rural poor - 400,000 square kilometres where jatropha can be grown have been identified • Research is underway in India focusing on agronomy, improved genetic material, production under irrigation and wasteland conditions, and different production methods Topic 6, Section A, slide 14 of 38

  15. Jatropha development • There is considerable variation between states in India in their approach to meeting jatropha development targets • There are village success stories • The winner of the 2007 Alcan Prize for Sustainability was the Utthan Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation for the work it did with rural communities to rehabilitate degraded lands with jatropha • The World Agroforestry Centre provided technical support to the Utthan Centre. Topic 6, Section A, slide 15 of 38

  16. Jatropha: key concerns • Exclusion of landless and poor landowners from wastelands • It is an invasive and toxic species • There is low yield without intervention • Yield may depend on irrigation and fertiliser inputs • The best yield will come from the best land, which means jatropha could compete with food production • There is a lack of crop management systems • There is no technology for harvesting seeds Topic 6, Section A, slide 16 of 38

  17. Alternatives to jatropha Neem (Azadirachtaindica) Pros: • It is widespread • Multiple uses - all parts of the tree are harvested • Neem is very drought tolerant Cons: • It is considered a highly invasive species • No technology exists for harvesting seeds • Seeds deteriorate rapidly and require local storage facilities Topic 6, Section A, slide 17 of 38

  18. Alternatives to jatropha Pongamia (Pongamiapinnata, Mellitiapinnata) Pros: • It is non-invasive and native to a range of countries • Mechanical processing is possible • The tree grows well on poor soils with no fertiliser • It produces more oil per hectare than jatropha Cons: • While drought tolerant, pongamia may not do well in extremely dry climates Topic 6, Section A, slide 18 of 38

  19. Biofuel market trends • Top 10 ethanol producers in 2005: • United States • Brazil • China • India • France • Russia • South Africa • Spain • Germany • Thailand Topic 6, Section A, slide 19 of 38

  20. Biofuel market trends • Top 10 biodiesel producers in 2005: • Germany • France • United States • Italy • Czech Republic • Spain • Denmark • Poland • United Kingdom • Brazil Topic 6, Section A, slide 20 of 38

  21. Biofuel market trends Topic 6, Section A, slide 21 of 38

  22. Biofuel market trends Topic 6, Section A, slide 22 of 38

  23. Interaction with global commodity markets Topic 6, Section A, slide 23 of 38

  24. Topic 6, Section A, slide 24 of 38

  25. Topic 6, Section A, slide 25 of 38

  26. Topic 6, Section A, slide 26 of 38

  27. Topic 6, Section A, slide 27 of 38

  28. Topic 6, Section A, slide 28 of 38

  29. Biofuel policy in Europe The goal of the European Union (EU) Biofuels Directive • By 2010, each Member State should achieve at least 5.75% biofuel usage • By 2020, each Member State should achieve at least 10% biofuel usage Topic 6, Section A, slide 29 of 38

  30. Biofuel production in EU Member States Topic 6, Section A, slide 30 of 38

  31. Topic 6, Section A, slide 31 of 38

  32. Biofuel policy in the United States • In 2006 former President Bush said the U.S. “should replace 75% of imported oil by 2025 by alternative sources of energy including biofuels” • Legislation has been introduced to use at least E10 fuel by 2012 in all cars in the US • The 2007-12-19 U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires fuel producers to use at least 36 billion gallons of biofuel in 2022 Topic 6, Section A, slide 32 of 38

  33. Topic 6, Section A, slide 33 of 38

  34. Biofuel policy in Brazil • Ethanol fuel programme is 30 years old • Sugar cane, mainly bagasse, which is cane-waste • An approximate blend of 22% ethanol is used nationwide • 100% anhydrous ethanol is being produced for 4 million cars • The programme provided about 700,000 jobs in 2003 • From 1975 to 2002 the programme cut oil imports by a cumulative undiscounted total of US $50 billion Topic 6, Section A, slide 34 of 38

  35. Topic 6, Section A, slide 35 of 38

  36. Topic 6, Section A, slide 36 of 38

  37. Oilseed pilot example Topic 6, Section A, slide 37 of 38

  38. Thank you for your attention