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Early Colonization of the United States

Early Colonization of the United States

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Early Colonization of the United States

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  1. Early Colonizationof the United States

  2. Join, or Die

  3. Land, Rights, & WealthColonial Life • The English - drawn to the New World – land • Owning land in the colonies gave political rights (voting), prosperity, and social standing • Women – essential to the economy however no rights • Children – worked; 6-breeched; 11-apprenticed • Schooling – reading (Bible); no math/writing; done at 7

  4. Great Awakening (religious emotion) • 1730’s & 1740’s • Importance placed on inner religious emotion versus outward religious behavior • Split churches • Increased church membership • Baptists, Native Americans

  5. Enlightenment (reason & science) • Reason and science were used to create paths to knowledge, versus religion previously • Benjamin Franklin – famous Enlightenment figure (lightning-electricity; stove; bifocals; Declaration of Independence) • Isaac Newton – law of gravity • John Locke – philosopher; natural human rights (life, liberty, property); challenged King’s ‘God-given right to rule)

  6. The beginning of England’s Glorious Revolution • English colonists expected English gov’t rights. The king needed $ to finance a war, so nobleman bartered their $ with the king’s acceptance of the Magna Carta. • Magna Carta (Great Charter)-guaranteed free men no property seizure, no taxation, and no trial without a witness or a jury of peers. • One important English right: right to elect representatives to government. Parliament, England’s lawmaking body, too far away to manage, so the colonies formed their own assemblies. • Virginia House of Burgesses-first elected assembly

  7. The beginning of England’s Glorious Revolution-pt. 2 • Despite these assemblies, the King James II still appointed royal governors to rule some colonies, which angered the colonists. • Additionally, Parliament passed laws that affected the colonies even though they had no representation. • Edmond Andros, governor of New England, angered colonists by ending representative assemblies. • Increase Mather, Puritan minister, sent to England to plead with King James II.

  8. England’s Glorious Revolution • Parliament overthrew King James II-not respecting its rights-1688 (Catholic); gave throne to his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband. • They upheld the English Bill of Rights-protected Parliament and the people’s rights • Crown>Royal Governor>Council & Colonial Assembly • 1700’s-salutory neglect=colonies got used to acting on their own despite laws passed by Parliament

  9. (John Peter) Zenger Trial • Publisher of the New York Weekly Journal • Stood trial for printing criticism of NY’s governor • Jury upheld Zenger’s attorney’s (Hamilton) claim that people had the right to speak the truth; Zenger released • Right of freedom of the press strengthened-1735

  10. French and Indian War • The French had claimed large territories in North America (New France). • Main settlements in Quebec and Montreal, and had forts along many rivers. • New France, in 1760, had a population of 80,000. • The British colonies had more than a million settlers.

  11. North American territories 1750

  12. Events leading to the French and Indian War • Fur trade was important and created economical as well as military alliances between Europeans and Native Americans. • These alliances led to cross-involvement in wars. • France and England declared war on each other in 1689 (*Magna Carta), and this was reflected in the colonies. • Each country with their Native American allies attacked the other’s settlements.

  13. War begins and spreads • The actual French and Indian War began in 1754 (and lasted until 1763). • Charles de Langlade, French fur trade leader, attacked British village Pickawillany and its trading post. • The Virginia colony was angered, so sent a small group of soldiers, led by 21 year old George Washington, to the newly erected French posts there to tell them to leave. • Fort Duquesne, began by English, seized by French. Fort Necessity also seized by the French. This was the beginning of the war.

  14. The War • Benjamin Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union, inspired by the Iroquois League, was the 1st formal proposal to unite the colonies, but was not fully supported, so failed. • General Braddock, leading 2100 men in 1755 to Fort Duquesne, was surprised and defeated by only 900 French and Indian troops. @ 1000 British troops died, including Braddock. • 1757-William Pitt, new secretary of state for Britain, was determined to win the war. Generals and $ sent to the Americas. In 2 years, 6 French forts captured, including Fort Duquesne. British also attacked Quebec, New France’s capital. Battle of Quebec-turning point of the war.

  15. Treaty of Paris • Britain claimed all of North America east of the Mississippi River. • France gave Spain New Orleans and Louisiana for its help in the Seven Years’ War. • British traded Florida for Cuba and Philippines. • Treaty ended French power in North America.

  16. Pontiac’s Rebellion • After the war, the British took over French forts, but did not continue to supply their Native American allies with supplies, as before. • The British also started occupying Native American lands, which also angered the Native Americans. • In 1763, Native American groups attacked and destroyed almost every British fort west of the Appalachian Mountains. This revolt was called Pontiac’s Rebellion. The British responded in kind. • The Proclamation of 1763 was issued to protect colonists, forbidding them to settle west of the Appalachians. The colonists were angered as they felt they had won the right to settle the Ohio River valley, and the British government was angry because it felt it shouldn’t have to pay for the colonists’ defense. • This was one (of many) cause of the American Revolution.

  17. Quartering Act • 1765-Parliament passed this law requiring colonies to house (quarter) British soldiers, and provide them with supplies. • This was expensive!

  18. Sugar Act • 1764-Parliament passed • Placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies.

  19. Stamp Act • 1765-Parliament passes • Law required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax has been paid • All diplomas, contracts, and wills had to carry a stamp. Even published materials such as newspapers had to be written on specialized stamped paper. • Boycott of British goods was organized • Secret societies formed that opposed British policies (Sons of Liberty)

  20. Townshend Acts • 1767-Parliament passed • Suspended New York’s assembly until troops were housed • Other acts placed duties on imports (glass, paper, paint, lead, tea) • A 2nd boycott of British goods was organized.

  21. Boston Massacre • Mobbing leads to British soldiers shooting/killing protestors. • 1770 • Crispus Attucks + 4 others killed. • Redcoats arrested for murder but recused.

  22. The Tea Act • 1768-On the day of the Boston Massacre, overseas, Parliament proposed a repeal of the Townshend Acts. • One month later, all the acts except the tax on tea, had been repealed; the British boycott had been effective. • But in 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, which gave the British East India Company control over the American tea trade.

  23. Boston Tea Party • In response to the Tea Act, colonists in some colonies either unloaded the tea from the ships and let it rot on the docks, or blocked tea ships from docking. • Dec. 16, 1773, a group of men disguised as Native Americans boarded 3 ships in the Boston Harbor and destroyed all of the tea by throwing them overboard (342 chests of tea).

  24. The Intolerable Acts • A series of laws that Parliament passed that in order to punish the Massachusetts colony and to serve as a warning to other colonies-1774. • The British referred to them as the Coercive Acts, but the colonists referred to them as the IntolerableActs. • The main stipulation of the acts was that the British would close the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea.

  25. 1st Continental Congress • In 1774, delegates from all the colonies (except Georgia) met in Philadelphia. • This meeting was called the First Continental Congress. • Delegates voted to ban all trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. • They also called on each colony to begin training troops. • Georgia agreed to be a part of the actions even though it was not part of the 1st Continental Congress. • Marked a key step in American history because the colonies were determined to uphold colonial rights. This meeting planted the seeds of a future independent government.

  26. Causes of the American Revolution • Proclamation of 1763 • Quartering Act • Sugar Act • Stamp Act • Townshend Acts • Tea Act • Intolerable Acts • British troops ordered to the Americas

  27. Troops ordered to America • In response to the trade boycott (response to Intolerable Acts), Britain Spies on both sides • Paul Revere and William Dawes charged with spreading the news to colonists if the British moved • April 18, 1775, Revere and Dawes set out to alert that the British were coming • April 19th, 700 British troops reached Lexington. They killed 8 colonial militiamen. Then they marched to Concord, but were met by 4,000 Minutemen/militiamen, so retreated to Boston.

  28. Lexington and Concord • These were the 1st battles of the American Revolution. • Those who supported the British were called “Loyalists”. • Those who supported the rebels were called “Patriots”. • Beginning of the war -1775. • After those battles, the militiamen gathering in Boston, and after the 2nd Continental Congress, the Continental Army was formed. Washington was chosen as the commanding general.

  29. Further rebellion by colonists • The Battle of Bunker Hill is fought, won by British, but cost severe casualties. • Peace is attempted with the Olive Branch Petition, but the king rejects it. • With the help of 59 new cannons brought in from Canada, the British army retreated from Boston in over 100 ships. • “Common Sense” is published by Thomas Paine, and convinces many colonists that a complete break with Britain is necessary.

  30. The Declaration of Independence • Committee drafting is made up of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson. • Jefferson actually composed the Declaration of Independence, chosen by his fellow group members. • July 4, 1776-the Declaration of Independence is adopted by Congress.