Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance

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  1. Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance

  2. Ammonia toxicity Urea Uric acid Osmoconformer Osmoregulator Passive transport Facilitated diffusion Active transport Uniport Antiport symport Osmoregulation by an aquatic invertebrate Osmoregulation in marine fish Osmoregulation in freshwater fish Water loss on land Permeable and impermeable body surfaces Kangaroo rate water balance anhydrobiosis Keywords (reading p. 879-884)

  3. The internal environment • In most animals, the majority of cells are bathed by internal fluids rather than the environment • This is advantageous since there can be control of substrates needed for metabolism

  4. Consider the origin of life: started out as enzymes in the primordial sea

  5. Rates of reactions were determined by the concentrations of substrates in the environment

  6. The first proto-organism enclosed it’s enzymes inside a membrane and became a cell

  7. Control of substrate concentrationProducts do not diffuse away

  8. Good because reactions will work better and you don’t lose the products • Good because you can keep out molecules that you don’t want • Bad because there can be osmotic problems • Bad because hazardous by products can stay in the cell Hazardous products

  9. Therefore the internal chemical environment is controlled • A. Avoiding buildup of toxic chemicals • Dealing with ammonia • B. Osmoregulation - controlling internal solutes

  10. A. Avoiding buildup of toxic chemicals

  11. Hazardous products • A major source of hazardous products is the production of nitrogenous wastes • Ammonia (NH3) is a small and very toxic molecule that is normal product of protein and amino acid breakdown • If you are an aquatic organism, ammonia can readily diffuse out of the body and this is not a problem

  12. Ammonia toxicity is a problem for terrestrial animals • Ammonia does not readily diffuse away into the air. • The strategy of terrestrial animals is to detoxify it then get rid of (excrete) it.

  13. Ammonia can be converted to urea which is 100,000 times less toxic • Mammals, most amphibians, sharks, some body fishes

  14. The drawback of using urea • Takes energy to synthesize • Still need to use water to “flush it out”

  15. Some animals cannot afford to use water to excrete urea • These animals use excrete uric acid instead

  16. Uric acid • Since uric acid is not very soluble in water, it can be excreted as a paste. • Less water is lost • Disadvantages: • Even more costly to synthesize. • Loss of carbon

  17. Who uses uric acid? • Birds, insects, many reptiles, land snails • Related to water use, but also reproduction • Eggs - N wastes from embryo would accumulate around it if ammonia or urea are used. Uric acid precipitates out.

  18. B. Osmoregulation - controlling internal solutes

  19. Osmolarity • Osmolarity = # of solutes per volume solution • Often expressed in moles (6.02 x 1023 atoms/molecules) per liter. • 1 mole of glucose = 1 mole of solute • 1 mole of NaCl = 2 moles of solute

  20. Osmotic problems • Humans have internal solute concentration (osmolarity) of 300 milliosmoles per liter (mosm/L) • The ocean is 1000 mosm/L

  21. Keep your internal concentrations the same as the environment (osmoconformer) Regulate your internal concentrations (osmoregulator) What would happen if your body surface is water permeable and you fall into the sea 1000 mosm/L 300 mosm/L

  22. Jellyfish in the ocean • Keep solutes at 1000 mosm/L no water loss or gain. • A relatively simple solution 1000 mosm/L 1000 mosm/L jellyfish

  23. Life in freshwater - hydra living in a pond • Can the same strategy of matching the environmental osmolarity be used? 0 mosm/L 0 mosm/L Green hydra

  24. Hydra living in a pond • If external osmolarity is very low like 0 mosm/L, hydra cannot maintain an internal osmolarity of 0 mosm/L • Why is this? • Consequently freshwater animals will most likely have a higher osmolarity than the environment.

  25. What happens to freshwater organisms? • Water from the environment is continually entering tissues. • The diffusion gradient favors loss of solutes • Therefore there is a need to regulate solutes and water

  26. Two ways to deal with osmotic problems • Keep your internal concentrations the same as the environment (osmoconformer) • Regulate your internal concentrations (osmoregulator)

  27. Solute regulation • Transport solutes across the body surface • Note: even in the jellyfish example, there is ion regulation. Although the internal fluids have the same osmolarity as seawater, they do not have the same composition

  28. Ways molecules get across membranes

  29. Passive transport: Diffusion • Works for lipid soluble molecules and gases • No good for most water soluble molecules and ions

  30. Passive transport: Facilitated diffusion • Generally used for ions, larger molecules, non-lipid soluble molecules. • Must be a gradient favoring diffusion

  31. Active transport • Works for ions and molecules like glucose or amino acids • Can transport against a gradient. • Costs energy, usually ATP

  32. In this diagram, how might sodium get across the membrane? • A) diffusion • B) active transport • C) facilitated diffusion or active transport Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+

  33. In this diagram, how might sodium get across the membrane? • A) diffusion • B) active transport • C) facilitated diffusion or active transport Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+

  34. In this diagram, how might sodium get across the membrane? • A) diffusion • B) active transport • C) facilitated diffusion or active transport Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + Na+ Na+

  35. In this diagram, how might steroids get across the membrane? • A) diffusion • B) active transport • C) facilitated diffusion • D) all of the above steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid

  36. In this diagram, how might steroids get across the membrane? • A) diffusion • B) active transport • C) facilitated diffusion • D) all of the above steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid steroid

  37. Types of active transport

  38. What type of active transport is this? • A) uniport • B) symport • C) antiport K+

  39. What type of active transport is this? • A) uniport • B) symport • C) antiport K+ Sodium potassium ATPase Na+

  40. What type of active transport is this? Cl- • A) uniport • B) symport • C) antiport K+

  41. Responses of soft-bodied invertebrates to changes in salinity • Marine invertebrates can often be exposed to salinity changes (e.g., tidepool drying out, estuaries) • If salts enter the body, pump them out using transporters • If salts are leaving body, take them up from the environment using transporters • Or just let your internal concentrations follow changes in the environment

  42. Dumping/pumping amino acids • One way to respond while keeping internal ion concentrations the same is to pump amino acids out. • Often used by bivalves living in estuaries • Clams, oysters, mussels

  43. Estuary - high tide 1000 mosm/L 1000 mosm/L aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa

  44. Estuary - low tide 500 mosm/L 1000 mosm/L aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa

  45. Estuary - low tide 500 mosm/L 500 mosm/L aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa

  46. Advantages of amino acid osmoregulation • Changing amino acid concentrations is less disruptive on internal processes (enzyme function). • Costs: pumping amino acids (can involve ATP), loss of amino acids (carbon and nitrogen)

  47. Osmoregulation in other aquatic organisms • Example: fishes maintain internal concentration of solutes • Body volume does not change • Involves energetic cost of active transport • In bony fishes this can be 5% of metabolic rate

  48. Marine fishes

  49. Marine fishes • Problem: lower internal osmolarity than seawater • Water will leave body, sea salts will go in • Solution: Fish drink large amounts of seawater, then transport out ions (Na+, Cl-) at their gill surface or in urine (Ca++, Mg++, SO4--).