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Chapter Overview

Chapter Overview

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Chapter Overview

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  1. Chapter Overview • Computer Cases • Motherboards • ROM BIOS

  2. The Computer Case • The case helps contain electromagnetic interference (EMI). • Larger cases usually have more expansion capability and are easier to work with. • Smaller cases usually have less expansion potential and support fewer internal devices. • Cases with more features cost more. • You should never run a computer with an open case.

  3. Working with Cases Desktop Tower

  4. The Motherboard • Before replacing a motherboard, double-check all other components to verify that the motherboard is the problem. • Replace rather than repair a damaged motherboard. • Consider purchase and interoperability issues.

  5. Chip Sets • The chip set helps the CPU manage and control the computer. • The CPU must be compatible with the chip set. • Specialized chips control cache memory and high-speed buses. • Different chip sets have different on-board components. • On-board components might have fewer features than do expansion card versions.

  6. ROM BIOS Chips • Read-only memory (ROM) chips store basic input/output system (BIOS) data—even when the computer power is off. • The system BIOS prepares the hardware to run. • Classes of BIOS chips include: • Core chips • Updateable complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips • Other chips with their own BIOS data

  7. Information Stored in the CMOS • Floppy disk and hard disk drive types • CPU type and speed • Random access memory (RAM) size • Date and time • Serial and parallel port information • Plug and Play information • Power-saving settings

  8. Updating CMOS

  9. Determining the BIOS Manufacturer • Watch the monitor when the computer boots. • Check the computer or motherboard manual. • Remove the computer cover and look at the chip. • Use a third-party utility program. • Cause an error that will launch the setup program.

  10. The Most Common Ways to Access BIOS Setup Programs • AMI: Press Delete when the machine begins to boot. • Phoenix: Press Ctrl+Alt+Esc, Delete, or F2 when requested. • Award: Follow the procedure for AMI or Phoenix.

  11. Main BIOS Screen

  12. Setup Screen for Hard Disk Drive

  13. Advanced Tab

  14. Security Tab

  15. Power Tab

  16. Maintaining CMOS • CMOS data can be lost for several reasons. • You should write down CMOS setup information or back it up. • Plug and Play devices include their own BIOS information.

  17. The CMOS Battery • Look for battery requirements on the motherboard or in the documentation. • Expect 2–7 years of battery life, depending on the type of battery. • Watch for battery failure indicators. • Replace the battery if a computer loses stored CMOS information more than once in a week.

  18. All Other Chips • Add-on boards may have ROM chips with their own BIOS data. • Device drivers could be required to provide BIOS support for hardware.

  19. Power-On Self Test • The power-on self test (POST) checks every primary device at startup. • Beep codes indicate problems before and during the video test. • Errors displayed on the screen typically indicate problems after the video test. • Errors can be fatal or nonfatal. • POST cards display codes that you can decode from the manufacturer’s manual.

  20. Chapter Summary • You should select a computer case for ease of use and expandability. • EMI can harm surrounding equipment. • Motherboards use different chip sets with differing capabilities. • ROM BIOS chips can be static or updateable. • A CMOS program accesses BIOS information stored in CMOS chips. • If you change hardware, you must update the CMOS to reflect changes. • A CMOS battery ensures that CMOS information is saved.