Traditional Farming Methods • List all of the MACHINES in the picture. • How many POWER SOURCES are in the picture? • What SOCIAL CLASSES are represented here? • Using the picture, write a sentence describing life before industrialization.
Farming in the Middle Ages • Villages feed themselves ( subsistence farming) • One of three fields left fallow (empty) to regain fertility • Animals grazed in common pastures • Disadvantages • Land use is inefficient • Farmers did not experiment with new farming methods
A Medieval Village Video
I. The Agricultural Revolution • Improvements in farming methods in the 1700’s boost crop yields and lead to enclosed lands • Scientific Farming: keeping records of out put • Jethro Tull: seed drill 1721 • Charles Townshend: Crop rotation • Robert Bakewell: Livestock breeding.
Enclosure Movement • Wealthy landowners fenced in pastures & began experimenting with new farming techniques • Villages lost common lands and political power • Peasants became poorer
Make a Prediction Q. What will be the cause and effect of the technological advances in agriculture? • More Food = nutrition, healthier, population increases. • Work done by machines less of a need for farmers. • Many small farmers lose their land, move to the city and become workers.
II. Ideal Conditions for Britain • Factors of Production- Land, Labor, and Capital • Natural Resources: water, coal and iron. • Geography: many harbors, 6000 merchant ships. • Science and Technology • Banking: loans and investment • Political Stability: free from Napoleonic Wars
III. The Product • Britain leads the way • Raw Wool • Linen • Cotton: High demand but too expensive.
IV. The Inventions and Inventors • John Kay : The Flying Shuttle • Weaver can work twice as fast.
B. James Hargreaves The Spinning Jenny 6 – 8 threads at one time.
C. Richard Arkwright • The Waterframe 1769 • Needed fast flowing streams to drive spinning wheels
D. Samuel Crompton • Spinning Jenny + the water frame = Spinning Mule • Bulky and expensive. • Set up in large buildings = Factories.
F. Eli Whitney • Cotton Gin • Makes slavery profitable • 1791 9000 bales produced. • 1831 987,000 bales produced. • Video
Questions? • What are the benefits so far in the new machines? • How are they powered? • How is this a limitation? • How would you improve them?
Mining • British Coal production increasing in 1700s • Problem: dig deep and hit water • Solution Newcomen Steam engine: drove pump • James Watt (1736-1819) found ways to dramatically increase efficiency of steam power • Steam power perfect for running jennies and looms • A solution to problem in weaving was found in technical innovation developed for mining A Newcomen Pump
G. James Watt • 1765 efficient steam engine. • Teams up with Mathew Bolton • Entrepreneurs: organizes, manages and takes risks in business. • Video
Effects of the Steam Engine • Steam power, used where coal exists, increased textile production • Improved mining • Increased mining of metals, which fueled other industries
Iron needed for: farming tools, new factory machines, railways Smelting makes iron more pure, requires carbon Carbon, from coal, needed to smelt iron Steam engines powered by coal Video Need for Iron & Coal
Effects of Iron & Coal • Britain produced more iron than all other countries of the world combined • Coal powered Britain’s enormous Navy • “The Sun Never Sets on The British Empire.” • Video
Interchangeable Parts • Interchangeable Parts – All parts are made to an exact standard so they may be interchanged. If one part breaks no problem!!
Orville & Wilbur Wright- airplane Elias Howe- sewing machine Louis Daguerre- photography Henry Bessemer- purified steel Alfred Nobel- dynamite Alessandro Volta- battery Michael Faraday- electric motor Thomas Edison- light bulb Other Inventors/Inventions
Nikolas Otto- gasoline powered combustion engine Karl Benz- automobile Henry Ford- 1st auto in U.S.A. Samuel Morse- telegraph Alexander Graham Bell- telephone Giglielmo Marconi- radio Inventions too numerous to mention all of them… Still More Inventions & Inventors
V. Transportation • Railroads • 1804 Richard Trevithick: first steam locomotive. • George Stephenson: the rocket 25m.p.h. Liverpool –Manchester Railway • Video
A. Railroads 3. Effects: • Encouraged industrial growth • New jobs • Boost to agriculture • Travel to countryside.
Society During the Industrial Revolution A. Urbanization-The movement of people from the country to the city. European cities of 100,000 inhabitants rose from 22 to 44 B. Social Classes during the Industrial Revolution Upper class elite, 5%(owned most of the country’s wealth) Middle classes, 15% (women worked at home raising kids) Lower classes, 80% (lived mostly in tenement housing-tightly packed apartment like housing)
Why Flock to the City? • Country Life: is harsh. • Regular wages • The weather is not a factor. • Country Work • Dawn to dusk • Family Work unit. • City Work • Work by whistle • 14 hours a day/six days a week. • Same work no changes • Factories badly lit and dirty. • Coal mines: Damp, dark, breath coal dust.
Capitalism/Laissez-faire • Capitalism—system of privately owned businesses seeking profits • Laissez faire—economic policy of not interfering with businesses • Job of the government is to protect your rights, not interfere with business • Adam Smith—defender of free markets, author of The Wealth of Nations • Believes economic liberty guarantees economic progress • Economic natural laws—self-interest, competition, supply and demand
Five Elements of Capitalism • Private Ownership • Equal opportunity for citizens to own business • Free Enterprise • Freedom to produce and consume • Supply and Demand • Inversely proportional High supply & low demand = low Price • Competition • Needed to secure highest quality good at reasonable price • Profit Motive • Individuals make the money
I. Changing the way of Life • Poor City Dweller • Lacked adequate housing • Filthy • Overcrowded slums • Unsafe conditions • Video
Urban Living Conditions • Factory owners rushed to build housing • Back to back row houses • Several people in very small spaces • Poor sanitation • High disease rates • Crime • Massive pollution
Urban Living Conditions Average Age at Death for Different Classes Rutland – agricultural area in central England Truro – tin mining center
Social Consequences Cont. • Living & Working Conditions • Drab & blackened w/ soot • Housing: packed in & short supply • Lived in 1 rooms & life poor • 1000’s children running around w/ no last name • Treatment of Workers • Jobs only for unskilled workers • Low wages-too low to support families • Worked long hrs – up to 14/day • Jobs tedious & oppressive • Few Holidays • Unemployment greatest fear – layoffs often • Workers not organized-couldn’t improve selves • Had to bargain individually – employers no sympathy (competing w/ other industries)
Working Conditions Long Hours- Most factory workers labored between 12-16 hours a day, 6 to 7 days a week. Unsafe Conditions-Miners worked in unsafe conditions in which death and injury were commonplace. Child Labor-Although a necessity for some families, eventually child labor was limited to 12 hours a day in England. Children were beaten if they didn’t work hard enough. Video
D. Children • Begin work as young as Six. • 14 –16 hour days. • Pay was less than 25 cents a week.
1. Scavengers • Picked up lint on the floor under the machines.
David Rowland testimony before the House of Commons Committee on 10th July, 1832. • Question: At what age did you commence working in a cotton mill? • Answer: Just when I had turned six. • Question: What employment had you in a mill in the first instance? • Answer: That of a scavenger.
David Rowland testimony before the House of Commons Committee on 10th July, 1832. • Question: Will you explain the nature of the work that a scavenger has to do? • Answer: The scavenger has to take the brush and sweep under the wheels, and to be under the direction of the spinners and the piecers generally. I frequently had to be under the wheels, and in consequence of the perpetual motion of the machinery, I was liable to accidents constantly. I was very frequently obliged to lie flat, to avoid being run over or caught.
2. Piecers • Reuniting broken threads from the machines
William Dodd’s Testimony • At the age of six I became a piecer. The continual friction of the hand in rubbing the piecing upon the coarse wrapper wears off the skin, and causes the finger to bleed. The position in which the piecer stands to his work is … in a sliding direction, constantly keeping his right side towards the frame. In this position he continues during the day, with his hands, feet, and eyes constantly in motion. It will be easily seen, that the chief weight of his body rests upon his right knee, which is almost always the first joint to give way.
William Dodd’s Testimony I have frequently worked at the frame till I could scarcely get home, and in this state have been stopped by people in the streets who noticed me shuffling along, and advised me to work no more in the factories; but I was not my own master. During the day, I frequently counted the clock, and calculated how many hours I had still to remain at work; my evenings were spent in preparing for the following day - in rubbing my knees, ankles, elbows, and wrists with oil, etc. I went to bed, to cry myself to sleep, and pray that the Lord would take me to himself before morning.
Robert Blincoe’s Testimony • The blacksmith had the task of riveting irons upon any of the apprentices, whom the master ordered. These irons were very much like the irons usually put upon felons. Even young women, if they suspected of intending to run away, had irons riveted on their ankles, and reaching by long links and rings up to the hips, and in these they were compelled to walk to and fro from the mill to work and to sleep.