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PAIN PowerPoint Presentation

PAIN

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PAIN

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  1. PAIN Dr Ghulam Mustafa

  2. LO’s of the class • Define pain • Properties of pain • Stimuli for pain • Receptors for Pain • Causes of pain • Types of pain w.r.t., Site • Fast vs Slow pain • Pain pathways • Body response to pain

  3. Pain • Unpleasant sensory experience that is elicited by Noxious or nociceptive stimuli

  4. Properties of pain • Pain is a protective reflex • Pain receptors are widely distributed • Commonest symptom • Earliest sign of Morbidity • Non adaptive receptors • Certain viscera insensitive to pain • Brain • Liver parenchyma • Alveoli

  5. Stimuli for pain • Mechanical • Thermal • More than 45°C • Chemical • Bradykinin • Serotonin • Histamine • Potassium ions • Proteolytic enzymes

  6. Receptors for Pain • Superficial skin layers • Internal tissues • Periostium • Joint surfaces • Arterial walls • Falx and tentorium

  7. Causes of pain • Tissue damage • Bradykinin • Increased Potassium • Increased Proteolytic enzymes Rate of tissue damage α Pain intensity • Tissue Ischemia • Lactic acid by Anerobic metabolism • Bradykinin and proteolytic enzymes

  8. Causes of pain • Muscle spasm • Stimulate mechanosensitive pain receptors • Compress the blood vessels and cause ischemia • Increases the rate of metabolism

  9. Types of pain w.r.t., Site • Cutaneous pain • Skin and subcutaneous tissues • Accurately localized • Deep somatic pain • Muscles, Tendons, Joints, Ligaments • Mechanical forces, Ischemia, Chemicals • Visceral pain • Poorly localize, radiates or refers • Associated with ANS dysfunction • Rigidity & tenderness nearby skeletal muscles

  10. Fast pain vs Slow pain

  11. Fast pain Sharp pain Pricking pain Acute pain Electric pain Stimuli Mechanical Thermal Electrical Transmission A Delta Fibres Slow Pain Burning pain Ache Throbbing pain Chronic pain Stimuli Chemical Transmission Type C fibres

  12. Transmission velocity 6 to 30 m/s Perception time 0.1 sec after stimulation Body parts involved Usually skin Duration Short Neurotransmitter Glutamate Transmission velocity 0.5 to 2 m/s Perception time 1 sec or more Body parts involved Skin and deep tissues Duration Long Neurotransmitter Substance P

  13. Localized Examples of stimuli Needle prick Skin cut Burn Electric shock Neo spino thalamic tract Diffuse Tissue destruction Paleo spino thalamic tract

  14. A Delta fibres Terminate in Lamina I Lamina Marginalis Excite 2nd order neurons Cross to opp side thru Ant commissure Pass upward in Anterolateral pathway Type C fibres Terminate in Lamina II & III substantia gelatinosa Signals thru short fibre neurons Reach Lamina V Last neuron give rise to long axons Cross to opp side thru Ant commissure Pass upward in Anterolateral pathway

  15. Neospinothalamic Few Reticular areas of brain stem Most Thalamus Ventro basal complex Post nuclear gp Somatosensory cortex

  16. Paleo spino thalamic Reticular areas of medulla and pons Tectal area of mesencephalon Peri aqueductal gray region From brain stem Intra laminar nuclei V/L Nuclei of thalamus Hypothalamus

  17. Body response to pain • Motor reaction: • Withdrawl reflex • Muscle rigidity • Autonomic reaction • Mild pain • Posterior hypothalamic nuclei • Increased sympathetic discharge • Tachycardia • Increased Blood pressure

  18. Severe pain • Anterior hypothalamic nuclei • Increased Para sympathetic discharge • Bradycardia • Decreased Blood pressure • Emotional reactions • Anxiety • Depression • Crying

  19. LO’s were • Define pain • Properties of pain • Stimuli for pain • Receptors for Pain • Causes of pain • Types of pain w.r.t., Site • Fast vs Slow pain • Pain pathways • Body response to pain

  20. Thank you