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Land Use Planning Opportunities

Land Use Planning Opportunities

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Land Use Planning Opportunities

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  1. Land Use Planning Opportunities Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  2. Objectives • Introduce fundamental concepts of land use planning. • Identify municipal master planning activities that can be considered “mitigation” and thus dovetail the planning activities of the State Hazard Mitigation Officer. • Identify six key areas of municipal land use planning. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  3. Implementing a New Paradigm • Effective land use planning will: • ensure sustainable communities, • reduce the impact of natural hazards, and • preserve cultural and historical heritage. • Planning is an activity that originates at the state and local level. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  4. Land Use Planning = Opportunity • Land Use Planning is an opportunity to: • inform and educate the public about a community’s environmental risks, • promote quality decision making with informed leadership, • control excessive development and the costs of government services, • set a vision for community development. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  5. Land Use Planning Basics • Land Use Planning (LUP) is the process of deciding whether and how to develop and redevelop land. LUP considers: • transportation issues • water supply issues • stormwater management issues • power/energy issues • access to schools and parks • population growth densities Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  6. Land Use Planning Basics • Many different approaches to planning ranging from detailed descriptions of appropriate and inappropriate uses to no plan whatsoever. • The American Planning Association (APA) offers a set of model statutes to help governments in developing planning legislation. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  7. Incorporating Mitigation Planning • The last chapter focused solely on developing a Hazard Mitigation Plan. • Land use planning is more than a means for communities to LIMIT building in known hazardous areas. • Local government can encourage development while controlling losses. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  8. Incorporating Mitigation Planning • A strong mitigation element in a Land Use Plan doesn’t erect a barrier to growth but actually helps a community keep thriving. • Land use planning and hazard mitigation must go hand-in-hand. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  9. Incorporating Mitigation Planning • It is more effective to incorporate mitigation and land use planning into a comprehensive plan. • Most local governments have an existing Master or Comprehensive Plan - seek to incorporate the Mitigation Plan. Don’t confuse an emergency management plan with a hazard mitigation plan. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  10. Municipal “Mitigation” Activities - Tools they UseReducing the Risk to Land • Zoning and Subdivision Ordinances • regulate the type of development that occurs in hazardous areas • limit development near evacuation routes, lifelines, and unstable soil • Setback Regulations • prohibit development of waterfronts which are at risk Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  11. Municipal “Mitigation” Activities - Tools they UseReducing the Risk to Land • Dune-Protection Laws • allows coastal counties to protect dunes • Development Rights • allows owners of hazard prone land to separate development rights from other rights to the land (New Jersey) Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  12. Municipal “Mitigation” Activities - Tools they UseReducing the Risk to Structures • Capital Improvements Program • limit the availability of urban services in high-hazard areas (discourages improper development) • National Flood Insurance Program • restricts development in floodprone areas • Acquisition of Open Space • develop green space in flood holding areas Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  13. Municipal “Mitigation” Activities - Tools they Use Recovery and Financial • Recovery/Reconstruction Plan • ensures mitigation is incorporated in redevelopment following a catastrophe • Lower Taxes • for open space or no development in hazard areas • Impact Taxes • or special assessments can fund the added expense of hazard area development Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  14. Municipal “Mitigation” Activities - Tools they Use Public Information • Hazard Disclosure • in real estate transactions, provide information that buyers otherwise overlook • Full-Scale Public Information • campaign will lead to a better informed citizenry and help create a political constituency for hazard mitigation Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  15. Six Key AreasLand Use Planning Programs • Programs that seek to directly influence development patterns by regulating the location, type, density, etc. of proposed development. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  16. Area #1Transportation Planning • Designed to improve the mobility and access of the community's residents and workforce, as well as to facilitate goods movement. • Covers a wide range of facilities and services, including roadways, public transit, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, railroads, ports, and aviation facilities. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  17. Area #2Water Supply Planning • Assuring a reliable and safe supply of water for residential and other uses. • Water supply sources come from either surface water or ground water. • Public water supply systems include storage, treatment, and distribution facilities. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  18. Area #3Wastewater Management • Relate to protecting surface and ground water from improperly treated wastewater. • Programs involve the planning and regulation of municipal and industrial wastewater collection and treatment facilities, as well as the approval and monitoring of on-site subsurface sewage disposal systems (septic tanks). Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  19. Area #4Stormwater Management • Aim to control surface water run-off occurring after a storm. • Stormwater is a leading "non-point" source of water pollution. • These programs cover a broad range of activities, from storm sewer design to soil erosion and sediment control. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  20. Area #5Floodplain Management • Seek to protect the public from the potential hazards of floods. • Programs cover a wide range of activities including mapping and forecasting, planning and building flood control projects such as dams and dikes, and restricting development in areas designated as flood hazard areas. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  21. Area #6Wetlands Protection • Have the objective of preserving wetlands, primarily by restricting development in and near areas designated as wetlands. • The state regulates development in two main types of wetlands: coastal and freshwater. • Some programs involve wetlands acquisition and mitigation activity. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers

  22. Summary • Introduced fundamental concepts of land use planning. • Identified municipal master planning activities that can be considered “mitigation” and thus dovetail the planning activities of the State Hazard Mitigation Officer. • Identified six key areas of municipal land use planning. Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers