What is RADIO? • Radio is wireless transmission through space of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESin the approximate frequency range from 10kHz to 300’000MHz. • Radio Aid is a Navigation Aid Utilizing Radio Waves
What is NAVIGATION? • Navigation:The process of plan and direct the route of aircraft by using MAPS or NAVIGATIONAL AID SYSTEMS. • Air Navigation – The action of plotting and directing the route of an aircraft through the air from one place to another. Adapted from the United States Air Force Dictionary.
Navigational Aid Systems ILS-LOCALIZER NDB ILS-GLIDE PATH VOR TACAN DME MLS
Learning Outcomes • At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to: • Describe about radio principles • Explain the applications of HF, VHF, UHF in aviations
Why learn radio theory? • Radio theory is essential knowledge for the understanding of the reasons why particular frequencies are used for particular navigational aids system (DME,VOR & etc)
What is Communication • Communication is a process of transmitting INFORMATION from one location to another • MEDIUM is required for the delivery of the information to be exchanged. • For example, • Transmission medium for television or telephone is cable or fiber optics
Communication • There are basically four elements to any communications system: Medium: agent to carry the information or data.
History of Communication • Radio transmission starts in US in 1920 with the invention of RADIO TRANSMITTING EQUIPMENT thatcapable of transmitting voice and music.
Radio Transmitting Equipment • TRANSMITTER : a device used to generate and transmit radio signals [ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES]. • RECEIVER : a device that receives incoming radio signals and converts them to sound or light. Example: receiver on radio or television converting broadcast signals into sound or images.
Radio Transmission • In communication link, the TRANSMITTER is connected through a cable to one ANTENNA. • ANTENNA is a device which provides means for radiating or receiving radio waves. • The signal is radiated to ANOTHER ANTENNA, and then passes through another cable to the RECEIVER. • Broadcast systems such as TV or radio can used one transmitter to serve many receivers via a free space link.
Types of antenna Reflector antenna Array Antenna Aperture antennas
Types of antenna Wire Antennas Printed Circuit Antenna
Electromagnetic Wave Electromagnetic Wave = Electric wave +Magnetic Wave Electromagnetic wave are used to transmit information by wave motion. Both waves oscillate at the same frequency Electric Field z Direction of Propagation y Magnetic Field x
Electromagnetic Wave The types of electromagnetic wave including: • RADIO WAVES (for TV, radio, aircraft communication) • Microwaves (radar, microwave oven) • Infrared radiation (Body screening, remotes) • Visible Light (Bulb) • Ultraviolet (Medical Equipments) • X-rays (Medical X-rays, Baggage Screening) • Gamma rays (Space Observations)
Radio waves Everyday technologies that depend on radio waves: • Standard broadcast radio and television • Wireless networks , Radio-controlled toys • Cell phones • GPS receivers • Aircraft Communications • ATC communications • Satellite communications • Police radios, Wireless clocks, Cordless phones , Garage door openers
Properties of Radio Waves Radio waves are radiated energy. Subject to attenuation & interference Consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields Properties of Radio Waves Can be reflected, refracted and diffracted In free space, they travel in straight lines at the speed of light c = 3108 m/s.
Radio Wave In free space, radio wave travel in straight lines at the speed of light c = 3108 m/s. • Frequency is the number of wave cycles that occur within 1 second. It is measured in Hertz. • f = c/l [c is speed of & l is wavelength] • Wavelength is the distance a radio wave travels during one cycle. • Amplitudeis the strength of the signal. • The higher the frequency, The shorter the wavelength
Example • What is the frequency of an Air Traffic Control operating at a wavelength of 2.5m? [speed of light c = 3108 m/s.] • f = c/l • f= 3108 m/s / 2.5m • f= 120’ 000 000 Hz • f= 120 MHz
RADIO WAVE can be reflected. • Reflectionis the change in direction of travel of a wave, due to hitting a reflective surface. • This is the same characteristic displayed by a radio wave as it is reflected from the ionosphere. • When reflection of wave happen, the wavelength, frequency and speed do not change.
RADIO WAVE can be refracted • Refractionoccurs when the radio waves go from one medium to another medium. • Refract means change the direction of radio propagation of by causing them to travel at different speeds and at different direction along the wave front.
RADIO WAVE can be diffracted. • Diffraction of waves is spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or around an obstacle. • Frequency, wavelength and speed of waves do not change. • The direction of propagation and the pattern of waves are change. Direction of wave propagation Obstacle
Radio Wave subject to attenuation • Radio wave can pass through an opaque object, but may suffer attenuation. • Attenuationis the loss of wave energy as it travels through a medium . • Or in short word the strength of the radio wave is reduced.
Radio wave subject to Interference • Interference is the prevention of reception of a clear radio signal. • Interference also means the superposition of two or more waves from same sources. • There are a large number of users of radio communication • How can these users coexist without interfering with each other?
How to avoid interference • Radio communicators can operate without interfering by choosing different radio frequency • To eliminate confusion and facilitate international understanding the majority of the countries of the world have joined in establishing standard classification systems. • The use of the various Radio Frequencies all over the World is allocated by ITU (International Telecommunications Union).
Wave Propagation • There are three principle paths which radio waves may follow over the earth between the transmitter and the receiver: Ground wave Wave Propagation Space wave Sky waves
Wave Propagation Surface Wave • A wave which follows the contours of the earth’s surface. • Propagate Low Frequencies (LF,MF) • Used for short distance radio transmissions Sky Wave • A wave that is refracted by the Ionosphere and returned to earth. • Propagate Middle Range Frequencies (HF). • Used for long distance transmissions Space Wave • A wave which is line of sight (reception dependant on altitude). • Propagate Upper Range Frequencies. • Used for VHF Transmissions.
Antennas on Aircraft • Type and size of antenna varies with the different types of aircraft. • The location of antenna depends on the design of aircraft.
HF and VHF Usage on Aircraft • HF1 = Typically used for Long-Range ATC communications. • HF2 = Back up to HF1. (frequently used to listen to the BBC to overcome boredom on longer flights). • VHF1 = Used for ATC communications • VHF2 = Emergency frequency monitoring. • VHF3 = Typically used for Data transmissions
HF-High Frequency • HF-High Frequency (3– 30 MHz) • HF is the basic band for long-range communications, mainly because its transmissions are reflected from the ionosphere. • HF is widely used for domestic aircraft voice communications.
HF-High Frequency • HF undergoes the “Skywave” phenomena where ionosphere refracts the HF radio waves and can be utilized for medium and long range radio communications, HF transmissions are reflected from the ionosphere.
Disadvantage of HF Efficiency of HF is affected by: • All kinds of electrical interference caused by ionosphere disturbances such as thunderstorms. This provides the typical radio noise. • Other weather phenomena: • Sunlight • Season • Solar Activity
VHF: Very High Frequency • VHF-Very High Frequency (30 – 300MHz) • Normally, VHF between 100 to 200MHz are used for ATC communications, emergency and navigational aids (VOR, DME, ILS). • The propagation characteristics of VHF are optimized for short range communications. • The range varies depending the atmospheric conditions but normally is about 180 nautical miles. • However it is more prone to blockage by Land Features, buildings, and its lower spectrum frequencies.
Specific Usage • VHF Voice communication Source Carrier
UHF: Ultra High Frequency • UHF-Ultra High Frequency (300MHz– 3GHz) • UHF: similar to VHF, but is restricted mainly for military aviation use. • In Malaysia, UHF is mostly used by Combat Aircraft of the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). • Other applications includes Navigations/Landing Aids such as the Glide path component of the ILS(Instrument Landing Systems).
UHF: Ultra High Frequency • At current count, there are also UHF signals receivable by Television, example, TV8, TV3, NTV7 and TV9 and ASTRO.
Exercise • What is the wavelength of an aircraft communications operating at a frequency of 30MHz? [speed of light c = 3108 m/s.] • Why do you think airline attendants ask passengers to turn off electronic devices including phones, radios, TVs and computer during take-off and landing?