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HOST - MICROBE INTERACTIONS & EPIDEMIOLOGY

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HOST - MICROBE INTERACTIONS & EPIDEMIOLOGY

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  1. HOST - MICROBE INTERACTIONS & EPIDEMIOLOGY

  2. RESOURCES • http://dustman.net/wendy/mibo2500/mibo2500ch19.pdf • http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/animations.html#ecoli • http://www.cook.rutgers.edu/~dbm/lecture04HumanMicrobeInteraction.pdf

  3. SYMBIOSIS • MUTUALISM • COMMENSALISM • PARASITISM

  4. MUTUALISM • BOTH BENEFIT FROM RELATIONSHIP • DEEP OCEAN FISH & LUMINESCENT BACTERIA • BACTERIA IN HUMAN LARGE INTESTINE

  5. USE OF PROBIOTICS TO INCREASE MUTUALISTIC BACTERIA • LIVE BACTERIAL CULTURES • TAKEN TO INCREASE BENEFICIAL BACTERIA IN BODY • I.E. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

  6. COMMENSALISM • ONE BENEFITS & OTHER NEITHER BENEFITS OR IS HARMED • SKIN NATURAL FLORA • COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

  7. PARASITISM • ONE BENEFITS AND THE OTHER IS HARMED • RANGES FROM SLIGHT DAMAGE TO DEATH

  8. CONTAMINATION • MICROBES ARE ARE PRESENT

  9. INFECTION • MULTIPLICATION WITHIN OR UPON THE BODY • DOES NOT MEAN DISEASE—BOOK IS WRONG

  10. A SYSTEMIC INFECTION SPREADS THROUGHOUT THE BODY A PRIMARY INFECTION IS CAUSED BY ONE TYPE OF MICROBE A SECONDARY INFECTION IS CAUSED BY ANOTHER MICROBE AFTER THE PRIMARY INFECTION A MIXED INFECTION IS CASED BY TWO OR MORE MICROBES A SUBCLINICAL INFECTION DOES NOT DISPLAY ANY SYMPTOMS BACTEREMIA IS A BACTERIAL INFECTION IN THE BLOOD SEPTICEMIA IS THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIA AND THEIR GROWTH PRODUCTS IN THE BLOOD VIREMIA--VIRUS IN BLOOD AN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION IS CAUSED BY A MICROBE THAT DOES NOT USUALLY CAUSE INFECTION NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS--ACQUIRED IN HOSPITAL OR CLINICAL SITUATIONS TERMS

  11. INFESTATION

  12. INFECTION & DISEASE

  13. PATHOGENS, PATHOGENICITY, AND VIRULENCE

  14. PATHOGENICITY • CAPACITY TO CAUSE DISEASE • MUST INVADE, MULTIPLY AND EVADE IMMUNE SYSTEM

  15. VIRULENCE • MEASURES INTENSITY OF DISEASE

  16. NORMAL FLORA • INDIGENOUS FLORA • FETUS IN WOMB IN STERILE ENVIRONMENT • ACQUIRE NATURAL FLORA AFTER PARTURITION

  17. RESIDENT FLORA • ALWAYS PRESENT • SKIN, MOUTH, NOSE, CONJUNCTIVA, GI TRACT, GENITOURINARY TRACT, UPPER RESPRIATORY TRACT

  18. TRANSIENT FLORA • PERSIST FOR HOURS TO MONTHS • PATHOGENS CAN SOMETIMES BE TRANSIENT FLORA • DO NOT REPRODUCE IN HOST

  19. MICROBIAL ANTAGONISM • ALSO CALLED COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION • INTERFERE WITH GROWTH OF PATHOGENS • DEPLETING NUTRIENTS THE PATHOGENS CANNOT GROW • ALSO SECRETE BACITROCINS AND OTHER ALLELOPATHIC PRODUCTS THAT SLOW OR KILL OTHER COMPETITORS • PREVENT THEIR ESTABLISHMENT • PARTICULARLY OF PATHOGENS

  20. PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS ENTEROCOLITIS

  21. OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS • GENERALLY DO NOT CAUSE DISEASE • MAY GAIN ACCESS TO THE BODY WHEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS COMPROMISED • I.E CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS AND PNEUMOCYSTIS CARNII • OR IF NATURAL FLORA MAY ENTER OTHER BODY COMPARTMENTS • I. E. ECOLI IN BLADDER OR VAGINA

  22. ETIOLOGY • THE STUDY OF THE CAUSES OF DISEASE • MAY BE CLEARLY APPARENT • COLDS, FLU, MEASLES, E.TC. • MAY BE VERY UNCLEAR OR UNKNOWN • CANCER, ALZHEIMER’S, E.T.C.

  23. KOCH’S POSTULATE • MUST OBSERVE IN EVERY CASE OF A DISEASE • AGENT MUST BE ISOLATED FROM HOST WITH DISEASE AND GROWN IN PURE CULTURE • AGENT FROM PURE CULTURE IS INOCULATED INTO SUSCEPTIBLE HOSTS--AND MUST CAUSE DISEASE • AGENT MUST BE REISOLATED AND IDENTIFIED

  24. EXCEPTIONS TO KOCH’S POSTULATES • ORGANISMS WITH UNIQUE CULTURE REQUIREMENTS • TREPONEMA PALLIDUM, LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, MYCOBACTERIA LEPRAE • DISEASES THAT CAN BE CAUSED BY A VARIETY OF PATHOGENS • NEPHRITIS, PNEUMONIA, MENINGITIS • PATHOGENS THAT CAN CAUSE A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT DISEASES • MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS, STREPTOCOCCUS PYROGENES

  25. DISEASES THAT AFFECT ONLY HUMANS POSE AN ETHICAL CONCERN IT IS ILLEGAL TO INTENTIONALLY EXPOSE HUMANS TO DISEASE ORGANISMS

  26. THE DISEASE PROCESS

  27. WHAT IS A DISEASE SIGNS, SYMPTOMS AND SYNDROMES

  28. SIGNS • OBSERVABLE • OBJECTIVE • RASH • DIARRHEA • PEELING SKIN • LESIONS • CHANCRE • CHICKEN POX

  29. CHICKEN POX IN NEWBORN

  30. SYMPTOMS • CHANGE IN BODY STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION • SUBJECTIVE • CAN NOT BE QUANTITATED BY OBSERVATION • SHORTNESS OF BREATH • PAIN • GENERAL WEAKNESS

  31. ASYMPTOMATIC • NO SYMPTOMS • OFTEN IN EARLY STAGES

  32. SYNDROMES • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • TYPICAL PATTERN • DOWN’S SYNDROME

  33. FACTORS THAT AFFECT DISEASE OUTCOME • GENETICS • AGE • NUTRITIONAL STATUS • PRIOR EXPOSURE • LEVEL OF IMMUNITY • SANITATION • SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS

  34. SEQUELAE • AFTER EFFECTS OF DISEASE • HEPATITIS--LIVER DAMAGE • SYPHILIS--TABES DORSALIS

  35. PROGNOSIS • PROJECTED COURSE AND OUTCOME OF DISEASE

  36. INFECTIOUS DISEASES • PRESENCE OF MICROORGANISMS IN BODY • DISRUPTSBODY FUNCTION

  37. COMMUNICABLE FLU MEASLES SYPHILIS GONORRHEA NONCOMMUNICABLE TETANUS FOOD POISONING CONTAGIOUS NONCONTAGIOUS

  38. EXOGENOUS DISEASES • CAUSED BY MICROBES OUTSIDE THE BODY

  39. ENDOGENOUS DISEASES • CAUSED BY ORGANISMS ALREADY PRESENT ON SKIN OR IN HOST

  40. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND THEIR EFFECT ON DISEASES • MAY MAKE ONE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE • HLA’S • GENDER • GENETICS • AGE • LIFE STYLE • SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

  41. COURSE OF AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE • MOST DISEASES GO THROUGH STANDARD PHASES

  42. INCUBATION PERIOD • MULTIPLICATION OF PATHOGEN

  43. PRODROMAL PERIOD • EARLY PHASE • NONSPECIFIC SYMPTOMS • HEADACHE • GENERAL WEAKNESS

  44. INVASIVE PERIOD/PERIOD OR ILLNESS • PATHOGEN INVADE AND CAUSE TISSUE DAMAGE • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS APPEAR

  45. ACME • CRITICAL STAGE • PERIOD OF MOST INTENSE SYMPTOMS • BATTLE IS GREATEST HERE

  46. DECLINE PHASE • HOST DEFENSES FINALLY WIN BATTLE • CRISIS VS LYSIS

  47. CONVALESCENCE PERIOD • RECOVERY PERIOD • HEALING • REGAIN STRENGTH • SYMPTOMS DISAPPEAR • CAN STILL BE CONTAGIOUS IN SOME DISEASES

  48. ACUTE VS CHRONIC

  49. ACUTE DISEASE • OCCURS RAPIDLY • SOMETIMES INTENSE SYMPTOMS • I.E. BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS

  50. SUBACUTE • SOMEWHERE BETWEEN ACUTE AND CHRONIC • SUBACUTE LUPUS