Content • Introductory information. • Greek paradigms in the 3rd declension. • Greek paradigms in the 1st and 2nd declension. • Examples of use.
Greek influence in Latin medical terminology • Since its beginnings the medical terminology was greatly influenced by Greek for several reasons: • Greek was in ancient Rome language of intellectuals; • many physicians were Greeks; • principal authorities of ancient medicine were Hippocrates and Galenos of Pergamon - both of Greek origin.
The physicians were able to use both languages: Andreas Laurentius, Opera anatomica in quinque libros divisa ..., Lugduni 1593, p. 372.
Introduction • As result of this long-term coexistence there are generally three types of Greek words in medical terminology: • Words of Greek origin that adopted completely Latin paradigms (iris, trachea, trochanter, ...). • Words which preserved partially original Greek grammar and have therefore exceptions in paradigms (diabetes, basis, systole, ...). • Words assimilated in form of Greek stems. Technically they have no paradigms of own. Such stem is always followed by a Latin suffix.
Group 1 • Those words do not differ from ordinary Latin paradigms. • They are part of your vocabulary since the beginning of the course. • There is chapter “Greek declensions” that extends your vocabulary using this group of terms. See p. 136 - 139 of the textbook.
Group 1 • Three paradigms on the page 138 (masseter, trauma, iris) belong to this group. They have ordinary endings according the 3rd declension imparisyllabics (dolor, caput). • Beware: the paradigm basis(p. 138) has a set of different endings. • For our purpose it is sufficient to memorise vocabulary (starting from masseter up to ending -itis on p. 139) as an additional set of nouns belonging to 3rd declension. • Vocabulary that belongs to masseter, trauma, iris is in file vocabulary.pdf mixed with other imparisyllabics from the 3rd declension.
Group 2 • Terms in this group use both Latin and Greek endings. Therefore they have a paradigm of their own, based on Latin with several exceptions. • They can be divided into two groups: • 3rd declension paradigm basis (including small group of archaic Latin nouns with similar endings). • 1st declension paradigms systole and diabetes.
Paradigm basis • Type basis is a derivation of parisyllabic 3rd declension. • A hallmark of words belonging to type basis is Nom. Sg. and Gen. Sg. ending ...sis, -sis. (Example: diagnosis, -is; hepatoptosis, -is; dosis, -is). • They are all feminines. • For vocabulary see p. 140 in the textbook.
Paradigm basis Red-marked cases are different from an ordinary 3rd declension stuff.
Paradigm systole • Type systole is a derivation of nouns from the 1st declension. • The paradigm applies to a small group of feminines. • Only singular has different endings. Plural cases have ordinary suffixes according vena. • Some of these words can have both ordinary vena-like endings or Greek systole-type in singular. Others must follow systole. • The vocabulary on the pages 156-157 is a bit confusing, hence for required set of words see file vocabulary.pdf.
Paradigm diabetes • Master very small group of masculinesaccording to the 1st declension. In the vocabulary that is required during this course only words diabetes and ascites follow this pattern. • Plural is a copy of vena. • Beware: those are masculines. • For grammar see p. 155, vocabulary p. 157.
Greek stems • This subject was explained in the previous lesson concerning “Clinical terminology”.
Examples basissimplex basis simplex basis simplicis basim simplicem basi simplici ⎯ bases simplices basium simplicium bases simplices basibus simplicibus prognosisdubiosa prognosis dubiosa prognosis dubiosae prognosim dubiosam prognosi dubiosa ⎯ prognoses dubiosae prognosium dubiosarum prognoses dubiosas prognosibus dubiosis acnechronica acne chronica acnes chronicae acnen chronicam acne chronica ⎯ acnae chronicae acnarum chronicarum acnas chronicas acnis chronicis • Explanation: • Basis simplex is combination of type basis and adjective from 3rd declension. • Prognosis dubiosa: type basis + adj. from 1st and 2nd decl. • Acne chronica: Greek type acne and adj. from 1st and 2nd decl. • Dyspnoe imminens: Greek type acne and adj. from 3rd decl. • Diabetes mellitus: Greek type diabetes and adj. from 1st and 2nd decl. dyspnoeimminens dyspnoe imminens dyspnoes imminentis dyspnoen imminentem dyspnoe imminenti ⎯ dyspnoae imminentes dyspnoarum imminentium dyspnoas imminentes dyspnois imminentibus diabetesmellitus diabetes mellitus diabetae melliti diabeten mellitum diabete mellito ⎯ diabetae melliti diabetarum mellitorum diabetas mellitos diabetis mellitis