GRAMMAR CHAPTER 16TENSE AND ASPECT EESL542D Nayoung Yoon Peichun Chen Samar alsharef
tense and aspect 1. Tense in verb expresses time. It is referenced to the moment of speaking. It has three dimensions: • Past present future • English marks only past and present time by inflections on verbs. 2. Aspect expresses how the speaker views the action of the verb.
tense and aspect The aspect terms (progressive, (or continuous) and perfect) are combined with the three times (past, present and future) to produce the 12 tenses of English
Lexical Aspect • Lexical Aspect refers to semantic properties of verbs, for example, whether or not an action is characterized by duration, an end point, or change. • Verbs fall into four categories in terms of lexical aspect.
Stative verbs • Stative verbs: describe states or situation rather than actions. States are continuous and unchanging and can be emotional, physical, or cognitive. The characteristics of stative verb • The states expressed are continuous and unchanging • They don’t have an end point. (atelic verbs) • They occur with start and stop but not with finish. E.g. He stopped loving Susan. * he finished loving Susan. 4. They don’t normally occur in progressive aspect forms *she is having a car. 5. They cannot occur with most manner adverbs *she understood methodically 6. They usually cannot occur in pseudo cleft (wh-word) sentences • What Bill did was resemble his brother.” Ch 22 pseudo clefts”
Dynamic verbs, 1.Activity verbs Dynamic verbs: have Verbs that require some input of action by the subject. A. Activity verbs. The characteristics of Activity verb Express actions that go on for a potentially indefinite period of time. Activity verbs can occur in the progressive aspect. They are atelic, lacking an end point. The action expressed either are continuous-as is the case with, for example, observe, pull, run, sit, stare, swim, walk and work or challenging– as, for example, decline, develop and grow.E.g. He is walking around the park. This planet is really growing fast.
Achievement verbs B. Achievement verbs Describe an action that occurs instantaneously either • punctually (e.g. bounce, hit, kick, faint) or • as change of state (e.g. find & cross) e.g. He bounced the ball several times. punctual She crossed the finish line. Change of state The characteristics of stative verb • They do have an end point. • they usually cannot occur with stop or start e.g. * He stopped recognizing the thief. * He started catching the kitten. 2. progressive aspect may be or maybe not be possible, depending on whether the activity leading up to the achievement is treated as being the same activity – for example, • His train is arriving at noon, but not • * she is recognizing the thief.
Accomplishment verbs Accomplishment verbs Have a termination that is logical in terms of their action. Examples (attend, build, draw, make, paint, solve, and write) • They occur with start, stop, and finish. However, with the verbs, stopping and finishing are different, and if the action is stopped, the accomplishment does not occur. For example, if a person stops painting a picture, then, it isn’t finished, and the action has therefore not been accomplished. 2. With accomplishment verbs, the subject performs the action of the verb in a certain amount of time, not for a certain amount of time. e.g. they built the stadium in less than a year * They built the stadium for less than a year.
Expressing more than one type of action It is possible for some verbs to express more than one type of meaning. For example, • see is a stative verb since it denotes condition that dose not change I see poorly = I have poor vision. • However, it express a dynamic event (achievement verb) that occurs instantaneously. E.g. I see a parking spot over there
Tenses in English language teaching. The simple tenses. In the simple present and simple past tenses, verbs are inflected for tense. These two tenses are called “simple” because they do not involve aspect. Simple present • The simple present tense is represented by the third person singular-s inflection on verbs. It has a range of meanings, some much more common than others. Basic meanings 1.states, e.g. • The lake looks like it’s frozen • He seems to be confused. 2. habitual action. • The habitual action meaning of the simple present, the most commonly targeted one in textbooks, generally requires the presence of time expression (e.g. every Friday, regularly, always+ time) e.g. • he watches TV every night after dinner. • They always go to the mosque on Friday.
General statements of fact & future action. General statements of fact: • Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade, the equivalent of 212 degrees Fahrenheit. • Warm air rises. future action • The bus leaves at 8:00 p.m. • we arrive on Friday. Additional uses of the simple present The simple present tense also appears in particular contexts or genres of conversation or writing. Instantaneous present • This simple present occur in the running commentary produced by a speaker to provide an ongoing account of what he or she is watching. E.g. • Jack lets fly and…Emory has the ball. He shakes one,…..two tackles, and…. He’s in for the touchdown!
Conversational historical present: • It occurs largely in conversation in which it gives a sense of immediacy to a past event, e.g. • He comes in and starts shouting at the hotel clerk. He’s really angry, you know, so the manger calls the cups. The narrative present: • Here the simple present narrates the plot of a movie, play, or novel that the speaker has seen or read, regardless of the time in which the plot is set. E.g. • The second act of Verdi’s opera Otello takes place in the castle. Lago urges Cassio to ask Desdemona to plead with her husband, Otello, to restore his rank, and watches him go in search of Desdemona. • Stage play and screenplay directions:
Stage play and screenplay directions: • Directions about exiting or entering the stage usually begin with the verb (e.g. enter the crowd rather than the crowd enters). • They fight. Tybalt falls. With communication verbs (e.g. tell, say, inform, suggest and write). To refer to a past communication. E.g. • Alan tells me that you are a talented artist.
Simple past The simple past tense is presented by the –ed inflection on regular verbs and by other changes in the case of irregular verbs. • It occurs with expressions that indicate a specific point in time when the action was carried out, such as yesterday, a week ago, last Monday, at four o’clock and so on. The basic meaning is to express action prior to the time of speaking. E.g. • we ate dinner in that Italian restaurant. • They built that house a long time ago.
Additional uses of the simple past include: Reported speech • John said “I’m a doctor.” quoted speech • John said that he was a doctor. Reported speech. Unreal conditionals e.g. • If I ever said something like that, she would kill me. Polite requests and questions e.g. • I want to ask you a favor. • I wanted to ask you a favor. More polite • Do you want to see me know? • Did you want to see me now? More polite
Expressing future time Future actions can be expressed by: • Will + verb (especially to express probably actions). He will get on the plane tomorrow at around two o’clock. • Be going to + verb ( especially to express planned actions). He is going to leave tomorrow at about 2 o’clock. The choice between will and be going to depends largely upon whether the speaker is expressing just probable occurrence or planned activity. E.g. I’m going to go to Paris next week. I have business there. I’ll go to Paris next week. I have business there.
Expressing future time • The simple present with time expression. The bus leaves at 8:30. • The present progressive ( for planned future actions) Actions planned for the near future are often indicated by the present progressive tense. He is moving to Canada this summer. Susan’s plane is leaving in five minutes. • Be about to + verb (for actions in very near future) He is about to leave • Be to + verb (especially for actions in commands) You are to stay until ten o’clock.
Progressive Aspect • The progressive aspect is formed with be and the present participle (verb + -ing) • Progressive (or continuous) tense combines with present, past, and future for forms and expresses ongoing action at different times.
Present Progressive • Ongoing action at the time of speaking • (am, is, are + present participle of the main verb) • They are studying for a midterm right now. (active verb) • Her plane is landing right now. (achievement verb) • They are putting the plane into effect in the course of this semester. (longer period) • He is bouncing the tennis ball off the backboard. (punctual achievement verb)
Additional Meanings • Future time • when a future event is planned and a time expression is necessary for interpretation. • e.g.) Tome is taking tennis lessons this summer. • Habitual Actions • With adverb such as always and forever, present progressive expresses habitual actions, emphasize the repetitive activity, a negative attitude. • e.g.) He is always calling me up t the oddest hours to ask some silly question.
Stative Progressive • Giving statements more emotional strength and intensity. • Has more emotional, intense, and vivid than the simple present. • e.g.) This operation is really costing a lot of money. • This operation coasts a lost of money. 2. Focusing on behavior as a change from the norm. • Expresses that the behavior of the subject is not his/her usual behavior. • (NP + is/ are verb + -ing +adjective) • e.g.) You are being very difficult today! • (Implication: What’s the matter with you? You don’t usually behave this way) • + the use of time adverbs like today and this week can be strengthened the notion of change.
3. Focusing on evolving change • Often indicated by expressions such as more and more, worse and worse, and so on. • Stative Appearance Verbs (appear, resemble, seem…) • e.g.) The baby is resembling his father more and more every day. • Stative Cognitive Verbs (believe, know, mean, understand…) • e.g.) I am understanding more and more about the English tense aspect system. 4. Providing an informal, polite tone • Give more informal and polite tone than the simple present tense. • e.g.) We are hoping you can explain this mess. • We hope you can explain this mess.
5. Hedging or softening a definitive opinion • e.g.) No, I am sort of thinking that I’d like to try a bit higher level heel, anyway. (rejecting shoe salesperson’s suggestion)
Past Progressive • Often the action expressed with the past progressive was ongoing at the time another action occurred. A past form of be (was or were) + a past participle Generally includes a subordinate clause that begins with when or while. e.g.) a. He was studying for his exam when I saw him this afternoon. b. she accidentally cut her hand while/when she was chopping vegetables. c. she was studying in the library when I was talking to Tom. • -when indicates a point in time when the action was ongoing • e.g.) He was watching television at eight o’clock. • -can deliver repetitiously • e.g.) She was tossing and turning in her sleep all night.
Future Progressive • An action that will be ongoing in the (often near) future. • Will + be + a present participle • e.g.) the president will be meeting with his staff all morning tomorrow. (short time) • An action that will continue in the future for quite long time. (for or as) • - Often expressed by an activity verb • e.g.) They will be debating the wisdom of letting the present wage a negative campaign against his opponent for a long time.
Perfect aspectPerfect aspect is formed with have/has/had + the past participle, expresses completed action and combines with present, past, and future time.
Present Perfect • The present perfect is said to have several meanings. These meanings relate to the lexical aspect of verbs as follows: • With stative and activity verbs, the present perfect expresses a situation that started in the past and continues to the present. • ■( already, just ,yet, never, so far, up to now, since, for, recently) • E.g. I have lived in Taiwan for over thirty years. • E.g. Dr. Lynne has worked as an associate dean since the beginning ofthis quarter. Note: for + periods of time since + a specific time spot E E.g. for ( a long time, a quarter, three hours) since I was a girl ( since + clause) since (yesterday, April first, last Christmas) Present Perfect Time Line
Present perfect • With achievement and, to a lesser extent, accomplishment verbs, it expresses a recently completed action. (Action that stopped recently) • E.g. Guess what? Eric’s father’s father won the lottery. • E.g. Penny has just written a thesis that contains a lot of information about class management. • With accomplishment verbs, it expresses an action that occurred at an unspecified time and has current relevance (the action is seen as noteworthy by the speaker). =>■puts emphasis on the result • E.g. Lola has re-written every one of Shakespeare’s plays. • With activity verbs involving inherent change, it expresses an action that occurred over a period of time completed a time of speaking. • E.g. The value of that stock has tripled over the past year.
Past Perfect • The past perfect tense is formed with had and a past participle. • Basic meanings The past perfect expresses a past action completed prior to another event or time in the past. • E.g. George returned the writing textbook to his friend after he had read it. The presence of the past perfect insures that the event it describes is interpreted as having occurred before the event in the other clause. • E.g. Gary had already left when Paul arrived. = When Paul arrived, Gary had already left. = By the time Paul arrived, Gary had already left. = Gary had already left by the time Paul arrived.
Past Perfect in subordinate clauses introduced by certain subordinators, such as before, after, and as soon as, it is often possible to use the simple past instead of the past perfect. E.g. 1. Annalisa left as soon as she had spoken to the school chair. (v) E.g. 2. Annalisa left as soon as she spoke to the school chair. ( v) Note: E.g. 1. = E.g. 2. ( Subordinate clauses themselves establish the sequence of the events.) E.g. 3. Annalisa graduated from CSUSB as soon as she had written her dissertation. E.g. 4. Annalisa graduated from CSUSB as soon as she wrote her dissertation. Note: E.g. 3. may be not equal E.g. 4 because we should consider the duration between two events. Writing a dissertation takes long time to complete. Therefore, using past perfect is better to illustrate this sentence. E.g. 5. Annalisa graduated from CSUSB as soon as she had completed her dissertation. E.g. 6. Annalisa graduated from CSUSB as soon as she completed her dissertation. Note: When we make the duration of the second event short, by changing it to an achievement like complete her dissertation, the tense of the verb in the subordinate clause can be either the past perfect or the simple past.
Addition Meaning • The past perfect also appears in counterfactual conditional sentences, which express speculations or regrets about unfulfilled events. • E.g. If I had studied harder to pass the graduation examination, I would have graduated from CSUSB this quarter.
Future Perfect Tense The future perfect expresses an action that will be completed prior to or by some specified future time. • E.g. Pei-Chun will have read the entire Second Language Acquisition by four o’clock. • E.g. Pei-Chun will have read the entire Second Language Acquisition before four o’clock. The future perfect tense also expresses states that will have endured for a period of time as measured at some future date. • E.g. They will have been married for 40 years this November.
Perfect Progressive Tense The perfect progressive tenses combine both progressive and perfect aspect with present, past, and future time.
Present Perfect Progressive Tense • The present perfect progressive tense expresses ongoing past action that continues up to the present. • It is formed with has/ have + been + the present participle ( V+ ing ). • It often occurs with time expressions beginning with for and since. E.g. He’s been taking lessons for about three months. E.g. Matthew’s been teaching Communication since he graduated from this school. What’s different between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive Tense????????? E.g. 1. Dr. Julie has wrote a romance. E.g. 2. Dr. Julie has been writing a romance for more than six months. The present perfect progressive tense includes the progressive aspect, confers a sense of ongoingness.
Past perfect progressive tense • The past perfect progressive tense expresses a past ongoing action that happens prior to another past action or time. • It is formed with had + been + the present participle (V-ing) • E.g. Kennedy had been trying to interest a publisher in his book for over two years, when discouraged by the many rejections he had received, he finally asked Saul Bellow for help. • A subordinate clause, beginning with, for example, when, often marks a past action that is related in some way. • E.g. Dr. Brenda had been working on other paper for over an hour when her husband came home.
Future perfect progressive • The future perfect progressive expresses an action that will continue in the future up to some specific time. • It is formed with will + have + been + a present participle (V+ ing) • That time is frequently indicted in a subordinate clause beginning with when or by (the time). E.g. When Nicolas Cage finally lands in New Zealand, he will have been traveling for over 14 hours.
Sequence of Tense Rules ReportedSpeechis the grammar we use when we want to tell another person about a conversation that took place in the past.
Reported speech (con’t) We often use “reported speech” to… 1. To give somebody a telephone message E.g. Simon said he couldn’t come today because of sickness. 2. To tell somebody news that we heard from someone else. E.g. Ella told everyone that she just got engaged yesterday. 3. To report something that happened yesterday. E.g. Makio said that the driver wasn’t paying attention to her boyfriend and was hit by him.
How can we use reported speech??? When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about “the past”. Thus, basically,verbs usually change to the “past tense” in reported speech. E.g. am/is => was are =>were have/has=>had will/won’t=> would/wouldn’t can/can’t=> could/ couldn’t
Reported speech • Reported speech changes the tense in spoken speech by sequence of tense rules. Tenses of verbs in the reported speech are “backshifted”. • => Simple present tense becomes simple past tense. • E.g. JR said, “I like her.” • Becomes=> JR said (that) he liked her. • => Present progressive tense becomes past progressive tense. • E.g. Jacob said, “I’m working on my study guide.” • Becomes=> Jacob said he was working on his study guide.
Shifts in Modals: Certain Modal auxiliaries are also backshifted: • May for possibility becomes might, and may for permission becomes could. E.g. Kazadded, “ I may go with my girl friend.” Becomes => Kazadded that he might go with his girl friend. E.g. The beautiful attendant said, “ You maycome in the MVP rest area.” Becomes => The beautiful attendant said that we could come in the MVP rest area.
Certain Modal auxiliaries are also backshifted: Can becomes could E.g. Samar said “ I cando that presentation too.” Becomes => Samar said that she could do that presentation too. Will becomes would E.g. Robert said, “ I will see my new-born child next year.” Becomes => Robert said that he would see his new-born child next year. Must becomes had to E.g. The professor told Vickie, “ You must finish it today!” Becomes => The professor told Vickie that she had to finish it today.
Exceptions to BAckshifting But……. A shift is not necessary if: If the original statement is a general truth. E.g. The scientist concluded that the atmosphere is/was a sea of air pressing down on the earth. If the speaker is reporting something still possible for the future. E.g. Fred said he drives/ drove a 1956 Belchfire Special. If the speaker is reporting something still possible for the future. E.g. The forecast said we will/would be having lots of snow. If the speaker repeats something he or she just said. E.g. Abby: I like Jonny Depp. Julia: What did you say? Abby: I said I like Jonny Depp.
Let’s stand up or sit down Instruction: Indicate whether the tense shift or lack of shift in each (b) sentence is appropriate and explain why. For Example: A. Waiter: You may smoke in this area but not in that room over there. B. The waiter told us that we could smoke in this area but not in that room over there. Answer: Shift is appropriate (May is shifted to could when the meaning is permission.)
Are you ready????? Question 1 A: A scientist believes all bodies, regardless of their mass, fall at the same rate toward the center of the earth. B: A scientist believes that all bodies, regardless of their mass, fall at the same rate toward the center of the earth.
Are you ready????? ( con’t) Question 2 A: David Wong : I could still run a mile in under three minutes if I had to. B: David Wong said that he could still have run a mile in under five minutes if he had had to.