The Roaring 20’s An era of prosperity, Republican power, and conflict
As the War Ended . . . • Spanish Influenza Epidemic! • Most deadly for 20-40 yr. olds • Eventually killed 20-50 million worldwide (by contrast, WWI killed approx. 15 million people)
1. Economic Downturn • Caused by demobilization, conversion from a wartime economy. • Inflation of prices • Business activity slowed temporarily: farmers especially hurt
2. Labor Unrest • Caused by unions demanding higher wages denied during war • Management fought back • Violence erupted throughout industries
3. Red Scare • Caused by Russian Revolution and an ongoing fear of foreigners and/or immigrants • Deportations, imprisonment of immigrants, quotas, new racial tensions all occurred
Presidents During 1920s • Warren G. Harding • Calvin Coolidge • Herbert Hoover
Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
Foreign Policy *isolationism,avoiding political or economic alliances with foreign countries. *international disarmament,a program in which nations voluntarily give up their weapons. The Harding Presidency
Domestic Issues • Normalcy - Harding’s campaign promised a return to pre- WWI peacefulness • Red Scare - American’s fear of communism and other extreme ideas
Palmer Raids • Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer • Driven by fear of Communism • And hopes of one day being president… • Held suspects without evidence
Sacco and Vanzetti • Suspected militant anarchists • Convicted of murder • Many felt they did not receive a fair trial because of their political ideas and ethnicity.
More Domestic Issues • Nativism- a movement favoring native-born Americans over immigrants. • Immigration quota- restrict or ban immigrants from certain countries. • Racial tensions . . .
Ku Klux Klan • Started in 1866 in South • Experienced it’s greatest growth and popularity after WWI • Three million members mostly in Indiana, Oklahoma, and deep South
Ku Klux Klan, cont. • Discriminated by race, nationality, political beliefs, religion, etc. • Many members were small-business owners, independent professionals, clerical workers, and farmers.
Black Codes: laws that restricted African-American rights • Curfews • Vagrancy laws (not working) • Labor contracts • Land restrictions (forced living on plantations)
Voting Restrictions • Poll Tax: special fee paid to vote • Literacy Tests (read, write, knowledge) • Property ownership
Black Americans in this period continued to live in poverty • sharecropping kept them in de facto slavery • 1915 - boll weevil wiped out the cotton crop • white landowners went bankrupt & forced blacks off their land
Blacks moved north to take advantage of booming wartime industry (= Great Migration) - Black ghettoes began to form, i.e. Harlem • within these ghettoes a distinct Black culture flourished • But both blacks and whites wanted cultural interchange restricted
Marcus Garvey (Jamaican born immigrant) established the Universal Negro Improvement Association • advocated racial segregation b/c of Black superiority • Garvey believed Blacks should return to Africa • attracted many investments: gov't charged him with w/fraud • he was found guilty and eventually deported to Jamaica, but his organization continued to exist
Scandals of the Harding Administration • Mostly related to the company he kept – “the Ohio Gang” there is no evidence that he was directly involved in the scandals • Teapot Dome Scandal – the most infamous
The Teapot Dome Scandal • Secretary of the Interior secretly gave drilling rights to two private oil companies in return for illegal payments.
Harding dies suddenly (and mysteriously) while still in office and Coolidge becomes president. “Silent Cal” Calvin Coolidge 1923-1929
Coolidge’s Foreign Policy • Continued Isolationism • Kellogg-Briand Pact – nations would not use the threat of war during negotiations. Pact failed, no enforcement.
Domestic Policy • Laissez Faire- Hands Off!! Government should not interfere with the growth of business
President Coolidge • “The business of America is business.” • High Tariffs • No help for farmers
This says it all about Silent Cal! • Both his dry Yankee wit and his frugality with words became legendary. His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. Without looking at her he quietly retorted, "You lose."
New Freedom for Women Although many women held jobs in the 1920s, businesses remained prejudiced against women seeking professional positions. • The Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote in all elections beginning in 1920.
Women in 1900 • Long hair • Long sleeves • Long dresses • Shapely corset
Women in 1920s • Short hair • Short sleeves • Short dresses • No corsets!
Women’s Changing Roles The Flapper Image The flapper, a type of bold, fun-loving young woman, came to symbolize a revolution in manners and morals that took place in the 1920s.
Flappers • Flappers challenged conventions of dress, hairstyle, and behavior. • Many Americans disapproved of flappers’ free manners as well as the departure from traditional morals that they represented.
Fads and Crazes In the 1920's several fads and crazes came to being. • dancing marathons • the Charleston • Mah-jongg • flagpole sitting • yo-yo's, • goldfish eating • pogo sticks • roller-skating
AmericanHeroes • Charles Lindbergh • As the first to fly nonstop from New York to Paris, • Hailed as an American hero and a champion of traditional values.
AmericanHeroes Amelia Earhart • Amelia Earhart set records as the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic and the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California. • She and her navigator mysteriously disappeared while attempting to fly around the world in 1937.
AmericanHeroes • Sports Heroes • Champions in wrestling, football, baseball, and swimming became American heroes. • The most famous was baseball’s George Herman “Babe” Ruth, whose record number of home runs remained unbroken for 40 years.
The Mass Media Chapter 13, Section 2 • Growth of the mass media, instruments for communicating with large numbers of people, helped form a common American popular culture during the 1920s. • The popularity of motion pictures grew throughout the 1920s; “talkies,” or movies with sound, were introduced in 1927.
In 1928, Walt Disney released the first cartoon, “Steamboat Willie”
The Mass Media • Newspapers grew in both size and circulation. • Between 1923 and 1930, 60percent of American families purchased radios