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Anterior Muscles Word Bank

Anterior Muscles Word Bank

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Anterior Muscles Word Bank

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  1. Deltoid External oblique Flexor carpi Seratus anterior Pectoralis major Sartorius Biceps brachii Trapezius Rectus abdominus Tibialis anterior Rectus femoris Vastus medialis Sternocleidomastoid Masseter Vastus lateralis Anterior Muscles Word Bank

  2. Posterior Muscles Word Bank Latissimus dorsi Trapezius Biceps femoris Gastrocnemius Infraspinatus fascia Triceps Rhomboideus Gracilis Extensor carpi radialis Gluteus medius Extensor carpi ulnaris Gluteus maximus Semistendinosus Extensor digitorium communis Soleus

  3. Muscular System • The body has more than 600 muscles that make up 40 to 45% of the body’s weight

  4. Types of Muscle Tissue • Skeletal muscle • Striated • Dark and light bands in fibers • Voluntary • Conscious control over these muscles

  5. Muscle Tissue • Smooth or Visceral Muscles • Located: • Walls of internal organs • Respiratory and digestive tracts • Digestive tract=peristalsis • Wavelike movement • Causes contents to be propelled onward

  6. Smooth Muscle • Unstriated • No dark and light bands • Involuntary • Under control of the autonomic nervous system

  7. Cardiac Muscles • Indistinctly striated • Involuntary

  8. Muscle Function

  9. Muscle Function • Aid in movement • Provide and maintain posture • Protectinternal organs • Provide movement of blood, food and waste products • Open and close body openings • Provide heat

  10. How Muscles Are Named

  11. How Muscles are Named • Muscle origin • Place where muscle begins • More fixed end nearest midline • where movement does not occurs • Muscle insertion • Place where muscle ends • End where movement occurs • Farthest from midline

  12. Size Maximus Minimus Shape Deltoid Trapezius Direction of fibers Rectus Oblique Location Anterior Posterior Bone Number Bi Tri Quad How Muscles are Named

  13. Characteristics of Muscles • Irritability • Ability to respond to stimulus • Contractibility • Ability to shorten • Extensibility • Ability to stretch and lengthen • Elasticity • Ability to return to original length at rest

  14. Muscular System • Flaccid • Soft when not contracted • Muscle tone or tonus • Normal state of balanced muscle tension required to hold body in awake position • Partial state of contraction • Muscles are ready for action

  15. Flaccid and Tone

  16. Tendons • Strong, fibrous connective tissue that connect muscle to bone • Achilles tendon • Located bottom of the calf (gastrocnemius muscle) • Secures that muscle to heel of bone (calcaneus)

  17. Fascia • Fibrous membrane that covers, supports, and separates muscle

  18. Fascia

  19. Structures of Muscles • Made of bundles of muscle fibers • Basic unit causing contraction: sarcomeres • made of actin & myosin myofibrils

  20. Contraction of Muscles • Sliding filament theory • Contain bundles of muscle fibers • Single fiber: • Fibrils containing actin & myosin filaments • During contraction, actin & myosin filaments move close together to shorten muscle

  21. Contraction of Muscles • Results from: • Myoneural stimulation • Glucose fuels ADP-ATP cycle for release of energy • Calcium needed for reaction to occur • Produces: • Muscle contraction • Heat • Lactic acid • Carbon dioxide & water

  22. Types of Muscle Contractions • Isotonic: shortening produces movement • Isometric: does not produce shortening or movement • Twitch: quick, jerky movement • Tetanic contraction (tetany): sustained contraction caused by stimuli in rapid succession

  23. Types of Muscle Contractions • Fibrillation: uncoordinated contractions • Convulsions: contractions of groups of muscles in abnormal manner • Spasms: involuntary, sudden, prolonged

  24. Muscle Movement • Pull never push on bones • Always cross a joint • Work in pairs: • Prime mover (agonist): pulls to cause movement • Antagonist: relaxes when agonist pulls • Synergists & fixators: • keep muscle & bone stable during movement

  25. Body Movements Caused by Skeletal Muscle • Flexion: • Decrease angle between two bones or bending a limb at a joint • Elbow bent and lower arm brought upward • Knee bent and lower leg backward • Extension • Increase angle between two bones or straightening out a limb • Elbow straightened and lower arm downward

  26. Body Movements Caused by Skeletal Muscle • Abduction • Movement away from body midline • Arm moves outward, away from side of body • Adduction • Movement toward midline of body • Arm moves inward, toward side of body • Rotation • Circular or semi-circular movement around an axis • Turning the head when saying no

  27. Body Movements Caused by Skeletal Muscle • Pronation: • Turning hand downward • Supination: • Turning hand upward

  28. Pathology of the Muscular System

  29. Muscle atrophy • Weakening and wasting away of muscle tissue • Occurs with paralysis and other conditions • Can lead to contractures: • Joint remains in flexed position

  30. Muscular dystrophy • Genetic disease • Gradual atrophy of muscle tissue • No cure • Treatment: • Medication to slow • Braces • Corrective surgery

  31. Muscular Dystrophy

  32. Fibromyalgia • A group of muscle disorders affecting the tendons, ligaments, and other fibrous tissues • Common sites of pain • Neck, shoulders, thorax, lower back, thighs • Myalgia common • Treatment: reduce stress, therapy, exercise

  33. Hernia • The abnormal protrusion of a body part into another body area • Result from weakness in stomach muscles • Treatment: bracing or surgery • Types: • Inguinal-most common • Hiatal • Umbilical

  34. Poliomyelitis • A viral infection • Results in paralysis of muscles • Prevented by vaccination • No cure

  35. Myesthenia gravis • Nerve impulses not transmitted normally from brain to muscles • Considered autoimmune • Muscle weakness may become severe enough for life support

  36. Pes panus • Flatfoot or fallen arches • Either congenital or from weakened foot muscles • May cause extreme pain

  37. Tetanus • AKA “lock jaw” • Caused by a bacterial infection • Prevention: immunization • No cure-palliative care of symptoms

  38. Muscle Pathology • Muscle sprain • A traumatic injury to the tendons, muscles, or ligaments of a joint • Muscle strain • Torn or stretched tendons and muscles, causing pain

  39. Muscular System Terminology

  40. Ab- Away from, not Add- In addition to Dors- back Ex- out Fibr- fiber My- muscle Pector- chest Rectus- upright Tend- tendon Muscular Terminology

  41. Muscle Movement

  42. Muscle Movement • Quadriceps • Extends lower leg (knee)

  43. Muscle Movement • Deltoid • Abduct arm

  44. Muscle Movement • Trapezius • Shrug shoulder

  45. Muscle Movement • Gastrocnemius • Stand on tiptoe

  46. Muscle Movement • Sternocleidomastoid • Rotates head

  47. External obliques Bending to the side Rectus abdominis Sit up Muscle Movement

  48. Muscle Movement • Sartorius Origin Anterior superior iliac spine of the pelvic bone Insertion anteromedial surface of the upper tibia in the pes anserinus Artery femoral artery Nerve femoral nerve (sometimes from the intermediate cutaneous nerve of thigh) Actions Flexion, abduction, and lateral rotation of the hip, flexion of the knee[1]

  49. Muscle Movement • Intercostals muscle • inhaling