Civil War: the Battles (1861 – 1865) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Civil War: the Battles (1861 – 1865)

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Civil War: the Battles (1861 – 1865)
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Civil War: the Battles (1861 – 1865)

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  1. Civil War: the Battles (1861 – 1865) US History: Mrs. Lacks

  2. War in the East: 1861-1862 • The first two years of the Civil War were fought primarily in VA; the South was victorious

  3. Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861 • Lincoln sends troops South to Richmond • Meets southerners at Bull Run; becomes 1stbattle of the Civil War • South wins

  4. The Battle of Hampton Roads,March, 1862 • The USS Monitor vs.the Merrimac (aka CSS Virginia) • Aka Battle of the Ironclads & first ironclad battle in history • 4 US warships, including USS Monitor engaged the CSS Virginia. • The US lost about 400, the Confederates 24.  • Monitor attacked Merrimac in the middle of the night (after the initial battle); both took too much damage • Ended in a stalemate

  5. USS Monitor CSS Virginia (USS Merrimac )

  6. Why is it called Hampton Roads? • The nautical term “roads” means an area bigger than a harbor where a ship can dock

  7. Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 1862 Antietam Creek, MD (near Sharpsburg)

  8. Battle of Antietam • copy of Lee’s army orders were found by a Union corporal wrapped around a bunch of cigars • orders revealed that Lee’s and Jackson’s armies were temporarily separated • McClellan reacted quickly, ordering his men forward after Lee • bloodiest single-day battle in American history - over 26,000 casualties

  9. Battle of Antietam • battle was a standoff - next day the confederates retreated back into VA • McClellan did not pursue them • Lincoln fired McClellan for his lack of reaction

  10. McClellan

  11. TheEmancipationProclamation • Called for freedom of slaves in “states in rebellion” • Did not end slavery in US (border states)

  12. What did the EP do? Allowed free blacks to fight for the Union

  13. Effects of Emancipation Proclamation • France and England were going to back the Confederacy militarily • After the EP, both decided it would look bad if they did (EP turned war into a moral struggle) • Further enraged South – Lincoln still refusing to believe CSA was a legitimate nation

  14. Battle of Chancellorsville • Confederate victory in VA headed by Lee • just following, Gen. Stonewall Jackson was shot by his own men - mistaken for a Yankee • his left arm was amputated • serious loss for Lee - “He has lost his left arm but I have lost my right” • Jackson died shortly after of pneumonia

  15. General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

  16. Turning Point of the War!Battle of Gettysburg

  17. Battle of Gettysburg - 1863 Union General George Meade Confederate General A.P. Hill

  18. Gettysburg Campaign Red = Confederate advancement Blue = Union advancement

  19. Battle of Gettysburg - 1863 • Lee was doing very well in VA • Thought Southern victory on northern soil would end war • Lee moved north in Pennsylvania, ran into Union troops under General George Meade at Gettysburg • battle lasted for 3 days (July 1 – 3, 1863)

  20. 1st Day : South positioned on hills; South wins • 2nd Day: Northern lines hold out; Stalemate • 3rd Day: Southern general leads Pickett’s Charge, but it doesn’t work; North occupied hills first; North wins • North wins battle – 1st major win; changes the war

  21. Losses Union 23,000 Confederate 28,000

  22. Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863

  23. Gettysburg Address • Written and given by Lincoln in Gettysburg • Wanted country realize it was a single nation - not just a collection of states

  24. Siege of Vicksburg - 1863 General Ulysses S. Grant

  25. Battle of Vicksburg • Gen. Grant working to gain control of Miss. River • Vicksburg (located in Mississippi) was one of the last confederate holds along the river and its high cliffs allowed for gun fortifications to control the waterway • after failed attempts at a frontal assault, Grant’s troops settle in for a long siege • food supplies began running low - people eating dogs, mules, even rats

  26. Battle of Vicksburg • Confederacy was forced to surrender • Split the CSA (Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana had no contact with eastern states) • reward for Vicksburg victory - Grant given supreme command of all armies in west

  27. Wearing down the Confederacy • After Gettysburg, Confederate morale began to wear down • small farmers resented tax on crops • soldiers desert after hearing of conditions back home • confederate congress fought amongst themselves • active opposition against the war in several southern states

  28. Inflation in the South

  29. Changing Course of War • March 1864 - Grant was appointed commander of all union army • Grant appointed William Sherman as commander of Military Division of the Mississippi • Grant’s strategy: grind up Lee’s army in VA while Sherman invaded GA

  30. March to Sea • Sherman led his army through GA (Nov. 1864) burning and destroying much of the land in his path • Sherman’s strategy: total war (destroy all things in path – even homes and civilians) • 60 mile path of destruction across GA • Burned Atlanta • captured Savannah • then moved to Carolinas (Carolina Campaign) • Killed Southern morale

  31. 1864 Election Pres. Lincoln (R) George McClellan (D)

  32. The Peace Movement: Copperheads Clement Vallandigham

  33. 1864 Copperhead campaign poster • Northerners who wanted peace (end war) • Blamed abolitionists for war • Published newspapers to get Union soldiers to desert • Tried to help Confederate prisoners to escape

  34. Election of 1864 • Lincoln vs. McClellan (former General) • Lincoln won 2nd term with only 55% of popular vote • On March 4, 1865, Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address, his favorite of all his speeches • By this time, a victory over the rebels was at hand, and Lincoln was looking to the future

  35. Presidential Election Results:1864

  36. The only known photographs of Lincoln giving a speech were taken as he delivered his second inaugural address. Here, he stands in the center, with papers in his hand.

  37. The Final Virginia Campaign:1864-1865

  38. Siege of Petersburg • The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, VA, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865 • more popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege

  39. Siege of Petersburg • The campaign was nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and then constructed trench lines that eventually extended over 30 miles

  40. Siege of Petersburg • Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. • Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the railroad supply lines through Petersburg to Richmond, and many of these caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources.

  41. Siege of Petersburg • Lee finally yielded to the overwhelming pressure—the point at which supply lines were finally cut and a true siege would have begun—and abandoned both cities in April 1865 • The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that would be common in World War I, earning it a prominent position in military history. It also featured the war's largest concentration of African American troops

  42. Siege of Petersburg • Richmond was burned by Davis and the Confederates (didn’t want the Union to get to it) • The last capital of the CSA became Danville, VA • Lee led his men to Appomattox

  43. Locomotive Richmond, VA Arsenal Chimneys Paper Mill