The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens
CIVIL WARADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES NORTH ADVANTAGES Larger population More industry More resources Better banking system More railroad mileage Abraham Lincoln More ships DISADVANTAGES Faced hostile people Southern territory unfamiliar
CIVIL WARADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES SOUTH ADVANTAGES Strong popular support Familiar territory Superior military leadership DISADVANTAGES Smaller population Few factories Less food production Fewer railroad miles Fewer ships Jefferson Davis Belief in states’ rights
Strategies Anaconda Plan King Cotton • Use a Blockade to cut off the south. • Stops supplies and reinforcements • Control the Mississippi to cut the south in half • But the plan takes a lot of time • Lincoln does not want to wait and order the invasion of Virginia. • South used a defensive war. • Try to make allies with other countries (Britain and France) • Europe needs cotton • South tries force them to help by controlling cotton trade.
CIVIL WARSTRATEGIES NORTH • The Anaconda Plan • Blockade the South • Split the Confederacy by gaining • control of the Mississippi River • Capture Richmond, the Confederate • capital
Overviewofthe North’sCivil WarStrategy: “Anaconda”Plan
CIVIL WARSTRATEGIES SOUTH • WIN RECOGNITION AS AN • INDEPENDENT NATION • Capture Washington, D.C. • Seize central Pennsylvania • Defend homeland until • North tired of fighting • Get Britain to pressure • North to end blockade to • restore cotton supplies
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade Ambrose Burnside George McClellan,Again!
The Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee
General George McClellan • Lincoln Appoints McClellan • Trains “Army of the Potomac”
Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 1862 23,000 casualties
Battle of Antietam • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HjIbFTrqwU8
Slavery: Lincoln’s Dilemma · The Civil War began as a war to restore the Union, NOT to end slavery. “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union.” – Abraham Lincoln, in a letter to Horace Greeley August 22, 1862
Objective: To examine the causes and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Emancipation Proclamation(Emancipate – to set free) · On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. “On the 1st day of January, in the year of our Lord 1863, all persons held as slaves within any state or…part of a state (whose) people…shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” · Now the Union had two goals: - restore the Union - end slavery in all Confederate states
Union Slave States · Lincoln was afraid that if he ended slavery, it would anger the four proslavery states in the Union. (DE, MD, KY, and MO) · Therefore, Lincoln decided to free enslaved African Americans in the Confederate states only.
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation • Free slaves in rebel territories only • Military order by Commander-in-Chief • Effective Jan. 1, 1863 Lincoln’s Logic 1. Rebels use slave labor 2.Northern morale was low 3.End possibility of England/France joining South
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (1) a slave owner from Texas? (2) a slave owner from Missouri? (3) an abolitionist from Massachusetts? (4) a slave from Georgia? (5) a slave from Maryland? (6) Abraham Lincoln?
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (1) a slave owner from Texas? “The slaves are free? Not in my state their not. Abraham Lincoln isn’t my President anymore, so I don’t have to listen to the Emancipation Proclamation. I only have to free my slaves if the Confederates lose the war.” (2) a slave owner from Missouri? “I knew it was a good idea for us to stay in the Union! I get to keep my slaves, just like the slave owners in Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware get to keep theirs.”
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (3) an abolitionist from Massachusetts? “Hmmm…the Emancipation Proclamation is a good start, but it doesn’t go far enough. Slavery should be ended in all the states, not only the one’s in rebellion against the Union!” (4) a slave from Georgia? “Yahoo, I’m free!! Wait a minute, no I’m not. I have to stay a slave until the Union wins the war!”
How would you feel about the Emancipation Proclamation if you were… (5) a slave from Maryland? “Man, this stinks. How come the slaves from most of the other states were freed but I have to remain a slave?” (6) Abraham Lincoln? “I wish that I could free the slaves in all of the states immediately. However, if I free the slaves in the border states, they may switch to the Confederacy, and I can’t allow that to happen. Anyway, nobody is really free until we’re able to defeat those Confederate rebels!”
Stonewall Jackson http://www.history.com/topics/stonewall-jackson/videos#stonewall-jackson Jackson was a decisive factor in many significant battles until his mortal wounding by friendly fire at the age of 39 during the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863.
Battle Chancellorsville http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ph8ni6EHnRQ
CSA Feeling Good! Lee decides to venture into Union territory – Pennsylvania • Why do that?!? • Supplies • Get USA to move troops from Vicksburg on Miss River • CSA victory in the north will upset politics in the north
The Daily Life of Civil War Soldiers • Officers in the field lived better than enlisted men. • They slept one or two officers to a tent. • Since the officers provided their own personal gear, items varied greatly and reflected individual taste. • Each junior officer was allowed one trunk of personal belongings that was carried in a baggage wagon. • Higher-ranking officers were allowed more baggage. • Unlike infantrymen, who slept and sat on whatever nature provided, officers sometimes had the luxury of furniture.
The Daily Life of Civil War Soldiers • Enlisted men, unlike their officers, carried all their belongings on their back. • On long marches, men were unwilling to carry more than the absolute essentials. Even so, soldiers ended up carrying about thirty to forty pounds. • Each soldier was issued half of a tent. It was designed to join with another soldier's half to make a full size tent. The odd man lost out. • The shelter halves were so useful that they were used after the war. As a result, very few remain today. • When suitable wooden poles were not available for tent supports, soldiers would sometimes use their weapons.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYg3v9lUuNA • Civil War military tactics
[July 1-3, 1863] Gettysburg Overview • Small PA town, 3 day battle, TURNING POINT IN WAR, 94o & humid, CSA looking for shoes Day 1 • Confederates looking for shoes go into PA • Gets into a fight w/Union cavalry • Fighting attracts additional troops in this unlikely town of Gettysburg • Confederates took town, Union retreated to a HILL
[July 1-3, 1863] Gettysburg Day 2 • 90,000 Yankees/ 75,000 Confederates • Little Round Top abandoned by mistake – Key position • Lee orders troops to Little Round Top (offensive strategy) • 20th Maine troops went to defend • Under command of Chamberlain • 20th Maine & Chamberlain: defend hill successfully