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The American Civil War 1861-1865

The American Civil War 1861-1865

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The American Civil War 1861-1865

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  1. The American Civil War1861-1865

  2. Lincoln’s First InaugurationMarch 4, 1861

  3. Confederates Took Fort SumterApril 4, 1861

  4. Confederates Took Fort SumterApril 4, 1861

  5. Lincoln Calls For Volunteers April 14, 1861

  6. Virginia SecededApril 17, 1861

  7. Three More States Seceded Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina West VA seceded from VA Border States Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware Slave states that remained in the Union

  8. Resources of Each Side Northern Southern 11 states 9 million people 4 million were slaves Defending own soil Superior Military Leadership More accustomed to guns and horses Cotton • 21 states • Over 21 million people • Superior manufacturing and food production • 2/3 of country’s railroad mileage • Superior Civilian Leadership

  9. Marching to Manassas • July 18, 1861 – 1st battle – Bull Run – (Manassas) • people from DC came in carriages and had picnics to watch the fight

  10. Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) Union – 30,000 troops Confederates 20,000

  11. First Battle of Bull Run First Manassas July 21, 1861 Attempt to capture Richmond Union met with resistance at Bull Run Creek Union had initial advantage Confederate forces led by Thomas Jackson turned the tide Stonewall Union Army forced to retreat back to Washington

  12. Stonewall Jackson • General Thomas Jackson CSA – gets nickname “Stonewall” • His troops held their position while southern army retreated • Inspired Confederate soldiers to keep fighting

  13. Rebel Yell Southerners counter attacked with “rebel yell” drove back Yanks • Union line broken and retreat • South did not chase

  14. Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run

  15. Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run • Taught north it would be a long fight • Lincoln call up 1 million man army • Southerners felt more confident

  16. Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run McClellan made General of the Northern Army

  17. The Anaconda Plan Three Pronged Union Strategy Capture Richmond Blockade the Confederacy Divide the Confederacy

  18. General McDowell Fired after defeat at Bull Run Union Generals

  19. General McClellan Replaces McDowell Union Generals

  20. Naval War Union blockaded the South As war continued blockade became more effective

  21. South developed fleet of blockade runners to try to continue trade

  22. USS Monitor vs. CSS Virginia (Merrimack) • Both were iron clad ships

  23. USS Monitor vs. CSS Virginia (Merrimack) • Both were iron clad ships

  24. First fight ever between iron ships Battle was a draw

  25. First fight ever between iron ships Marks the beginning of modern naval warfare

  26. Eastern Front South controlled Shenandoah Valley

  27. Peninsula Campaign McClellan (Union) led several campaigns to attack Richmond Was very cautious with his plans

  28. General Robert E Lee used JEB Stuart to lead cavalry to stop McClellan Confederates win Seven Days Battle

  29. Lee defeated Union Army at 2nd Battle of Bull Run Puts Confederates close to Washington DC

  30. Lee’s Invasion of North

  31. Goals of Lee’s Invasion • Force Lincoln to talk peace • Farmers get to harvest food in VA • Show Europe South can win • South need Europe for military and financial support Lee’s Invasion of North

  32. Lee plans to attack Sharpsburg, MarylandNorth discovers Lee’s plan and launches a surprise attack against the Confederates

  33. Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) • North and South fight all day

  34. Antietam • One of the Bloodiest battles of the war • 23,000 killed or wounded

  35. Antietam • One of the Bloodiest battles of the war • 23,000 killed or wounded McClellan (Union) allows Lee and Confederates to escape following the battle

  36. General McClellan Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee Union Generals

  37. Union Generals General Burnside Replaces McClellan

  38. Effects of Antietam Europe does not ally with CSA Lincoln originally fought war only to preserve the Union After Antietam Lincoln decides to issue Emancipation Proclamation

  39. Emancipation Proclamation Frees all slaves in REBELLING states on January 1, 1863 Old South will be destroyed and replaced with new values

  40. Emancipation Proclamation Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North?

  41. Emancipation Proclamation Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North? • Freeing slaves in South seen as military action • As Commander in Chief (head of military) Lincoln can take military actions

  42. Emancipation Proclamation Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North? • Freeing slaves in South seen as military action • As Commander in Chief (head of military) Lincoln can take military actions • Can’t free slaves in north because of Constitution • Government can’t take property without due process • Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri might secede

  43. Black Americans Join Up • Used them for support work • 54th Massachusetts – Glory • Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army • Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties

  44. Black Americans Join Up • Used them for support work • 54th Massachusetts – Glory • Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army • Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties

  45. Black Americans Join Up • Used them for support work • 54th Massachusetts – Glory • Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army • Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties

  46. Western Front

  47. Union Army based in Cairo Illinois Mississippi River Ohio River

  48. Union Army based in Cairo Illinois Union is able to get control over rivers that lead into South

  49. War in the West General Grant Western Commander US Army