WINE ... there is one wine that will satisfiy your senses
WINE UNITS OF COMPETENCE • Describe the basic elements of wine appreciation • Describe the basic structural components of wine to a customer using standard industry terminology • Describe key wine styles and varieties with customers using standard terminology • Communicate basic information about Australian wine to customers • Identify basic wine faults • Assist customers to match wine with food
Brief History of wine in Australia • 1788 – Gov.Phillip arrives in Sydney, brings vine cuttings, plants vine cutting • 1794 – John Macarthur plants vines and starts making port, sends some wine back to England • 1790 - 1801 Experimentation with vines around Sydney • 1806 – Blaxland experiments with vine cuttings • 1807 – Experimental planting in Camden Park • 1816 – Blaxland plants in Ermington • 1817 – John William and James Macarthur arrive from Europe with more cuttings • 1820 – Plantings in Penrith and Camden
Brief History of wine in Australia cont. • 1822 – Gregory Blaxland exports first commercial wine • 1825 – James Busby writes book on vines and wine making • 1825 – Busby develops vineyard in Hunter Valley • 1829 – Charles McFaull establishes first vineyard in WA • 1830 – James Busby writes second book • 1830 – George Wyndham opens Dalwood in Lower Hunter Valley
Brief History of wine in Australia cont. • 1831 – Busby exports to Europe • 1834 – Edward Henty plants in Victoria, but fail then John Pascoe Fawkner has success in Melbourne • 1837 – S.A. wine industry begins. AJ Scholtz and P.Stein plant first vines. The rest is history. S.A. produces the most wine of any state to this day.
What is wine? • Simply put , wine is made from grapes, whether they be red, green, purple, light red, or yellowish. The grapes are crushed , they ferment and turn into wine. • Note: there is no white grape.
Vitis Vinifera – winemaking species of the wine vine plant HOW MANY GRAPE VARIETIES ARE THERE? Several thousand to be precise, but a few hundred are actually used for wine making. The wine plant can produce fruit for up to 100 years.
Categories of wine • Red • White • Sparkling • Dessert • Fortified
Composition of Wine • Water 80-86% • Alcohol 10%-17.5% • Glycerol 1% • Organic acids (tartaric, lactic, succinic, traces of malic and citric) • Unfermented sugar (carbohydrates) • Minerals ( calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, phosphate, silicic acid, sulphate and traces of iron, boron, aluminium, zinc) • Tannin and colour pigments
Composition of Wine continued. • Volatile acids (mostly acidic) • Nitrogenous matters such as Amino acids and Protein • Esters (mostly ethyl acetate) • Aldehydes (acetaldehyde, vanillin and others) • Higher alcohols (isoamyl, butyl, propyl and methyl) • Vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acids, pyroxidine etc) Source: Wine Encyclopaedia , 1988
Wine Additives Preservatives usually prevent spoilage they are identified in the number range of 200 - 283. • 200 Sorbic Acid - inhibits the growth of yeasts and moulds, permitted in wine making. • 220 Sulpur Dioxide(SO2)- it is used in wine as an anti oxidant, inhibits growth of lactic acid or acetic acid bacteria, ensures the yeast will dominate the fermentation.
Wine Additives continued Anti Oxidants occur in the number range of 300 - 322. They help fruit from browning. • 300 Ascorbic Acid - vitamin C, used to stop browning, therefore stops oxidation.
Generic or Varietal? Generic – Universal naming of the wine, generally after a region or district famous for producing that style of wine. Varietal – Naming the wine after the grape or grapes used in the production of the wine.
Main popular white grape varieties in OZ • Chardonnay • Chennin Blanc • Columbard • Frontignac • Gewurtztraminer • Marsanne • Riesling • Sauvignon Blanc • Semillon • Trebianno • Verdelho • Viognier
Main popular red grape varieties in OZ • Barbera • Cabernet Franc • Cabernet Sauvignon • Chambourcin • Durif • Grenache • Merlot • Mourvedre (Mataro) • Pinot Noir • Sangiovese • Shiraz • Zinfandel
Generic Styles White wine • Chablis; Burgundy region • Hock; Hochheim, Germany • White Burgundy; Burgundy region • Riesling; Rhine River, Germany • Moselle; Mosel district, Germany • Graves; Bordeaux region • Sauternes; Bordeaux region
Generic Styles Red wine • Claret; Bordeaux region, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Merlot grapes • Burgundy; Burgundy region , think Pinot Noir • Rose; Burgundy region, use Grenache grape • Beaujolais; Burgundy region, think Gamay grape
Wine growing areas in Australia Western Australia • Greater Perth (Peel, Swan District, Perth Hills) • Central Western Australia • South West Australia (Blackwood valley, Albany, Denmark, Manjimup, Margaret River, Pemberton) • Eastern Plains, Inland and North of Western Australia • West Australian South East Coastal (Esperance)
Some wineries from Western Australia • Leeuwin Estate - Margaret River • Sandalford - Margaret River • Vasse Felix- Margaret River • Houghton- Swan Valley • Jane Brook- Swan Valley • Plantaganent- Mt. Barker • Picardy- Pemperdon
Wine growing areas in Australia South Australia • Adelaide • Mt Lofty Ranges ( Adelaide Hills, Adelaide Plains, Clare Valley ) • Barossa ( Barossa Valley and Edan Valley) • Fleurieu ( Kangaroo Island, Langhorne Creek, McLaren Vale) • Limestone Coast ( Bordertown, Penola, Coonawarra, Mount Benson, Padthaway, Wrattonbully) • Lower Murray (Riverland) • The Peninsulas • Far north – Southern Flinders Ranges
Some Wineries from South Australia • Hardys- Barossa Valley • Penfolds- Barossa Valley • Leasingham- Clare • Taylors- Clare • Petaluma- Coonawarra • Redman- Coonawarra • d’Arenberg- Mclaren Vale
Wine growing areas in Australia Queensland • Granite Belt (Stanthorpe) • South Burnett
Some wineries from Queensland • Contanzo Brothers- Stanthorpe • Old Caves Winery- Stanthorpe • Elsinore Winery- Stanthorpe • Bungawarra- Stanthorpe • Bassets Romaville- Roma
Wine growing areas in Australia New South Wales • Big Rivers (Murray Darling, Riverland, Swan Hill, Perricoota) • Western Plains • Central Ranges ( Cowra, Lachlan Valley, Mudgee, Orange) • Southern NSW ( Canberra District, Gundagai, Hilltops, Tumbarumba) • South Coast ( Shoalhaven Heads, Southern Highlands, Sydney) • Northern Slopes (Inland Northern NSW) • Northern Rivers ( Hastings River) • Hunter Valley
Some wineries from New South Wales • Brokenwood- Hunter Valley • Lindemans- Hunter Valley • Tulloch- Hunter Valley • Craigmore- Mudgee • De Bortoli- Griffith • Cowra Wines- Cowra • The Silos Winery- Nowra • Vickerys Winery- Luddenham
Wine growing areas in Australia Victoria • North West Victoria ( Murray darling, Swan Hill) • North East Victoria (Alpine Valley, Beechworth, Glenrowan, King Valley, Rutherglen) • Central Victoria ( Bendigo, High Country, Goulburn Valley, Heathcote, Strathbogie Ranges) • Western Victoria ( Grampians, Henty, Pyrenees, Great Western) • Port Phillip ( Geelong, Macedon Ranges, Mornington Peninsula, Sunbury, Yarra Valley) • Gippsland
Some wineries from Victoria • Warrabilla Winery- Rutherglen • All Saints- Rutherglen • Mildara- Mildura • Brown Brothers- Milawa • Coldstream Hills- Yarra Valley • St. Huberts- Yarra Valley • Seppelt- Great Western
Wine growing areas in Australia Tasmania • Launceston (Lilydale, Pipers Brook, Tamar Valley) • Hobart (Berriedale)
Some wineries from Tasmania • Heemskerk- Launceston • Pipers Brook- Launceston • Elmslie Vineyard- Launceston • Ellis Hills- Launceston • Moorilla Estate- Hobart • Meadowbank- Hobart • Bream creek- Hobart • Winterwood- Hobart
Wine growing areas in Australia Australian Capital Territory (ACT) The ACT has a number of wineries close to Canberra, most in Murrumbateman. Cool climate region with good wines.
Some wineries from the ACT (Canberra) • Clonakilla • Lark Hill Wines • Yass Valley Wines • Doonkunna Estate • Helm’s Wines • The Murrumbateman Winery • Benfield Estate
Production of Australian Wine Australia produces 4% of the worlds wine yet it is the 4th largest exporter of wine South Australia produces roughly 48% of the total wine production New South Wales 23% Victoria 23% The balance from the other states. These figures can vary from year to year, with slight fluctuations.
Recent Australian Vintages • 2007: Fire and heat caused lower yields. Good wine from Margaret river, Hunter Valley, Tasmania and Mornington Peninsula. • 2006: A great classic red vintage, ok for white wine • 2005: Greatest vintage since 2000 and 1998 • 2004: Patchy vintage. Adelaide Hills being best region • 2003: Very dry, and lots of rain before vintage. Patchy, good in Orange
Wine Figures ; May 2004 by the Winemakers federation of Australia • 1620 wineries in Australia • 1580 of them crush less than 1000 tonnes of grapes • These smaller wineries hold 6% of the domestic market by volume and 10% by sales • Most of these wineries have annual sales of less than $5 million • For a $15 bottle of wine, $3.65 goes into tax and just 44cents into the pockets of the small wine producer
Organic wine Organic Grape Growing Practices are Sustainable, vineyards are managed to minimize the impact on organisms & micro-organisms living in the ground. For example, tilling the soil is discouraged, as it disrupts the biological activity in the soil - as an alternative, the organic grape grower will control vine undergrowth through mowing & slashing
Biodynamic Wine Biodynamics is simply an enhanced form of organic farming designed by German Philosopher Rudolf Steiner. The method of biodynamics treats farms as unified and individual organisms, emphasising balancing the holistic development and interrelationship of the soil, plants, animals as a closed, self-nourishing system. Planting for biodynamic wine is done by following lunar cycles.
Certified biodynamic wineries • Jeeleunup Gully Wines (Mt Barker) • Kiltynane Estate (Yarra Valley) • Robinvale Wines (Murray Darling) • Rosnay Wines (Canowindra, NSW) • Streamville (Arthurs Creek, Victoria)
Certified Organic Wines • Captains Creek ( Macedon Rangers) • Glenara Wines (Adelaide Hills) • Mabrook estate (Hunter Valley) • Martins Hill Wines ( Mudgee) • Robinvale Wines ( Murray Darling) • Temple Breuer (Langhorne Creek) • Serventy Hills ( Margaret River)
Wine production – white wine • Growing grapes (Viticulture) to suit the soil and climate of the region. • Selection of the grapes ( Baume & PH ) • Harvest (usually late Jan to May), by hand or machine • Crushing – crush/de stem, press • Fermentation
Wine production – white wine cont. • White wine has very little to no skin contact, cool temperature 10c • Clarification (Racking, Fining, Stabilising and Filtering) • Maturation (wood or stainless steel) • Blending – variety or region • Packaging ( bottle, carton or other)
Wine production – red wine • Growing grapes (Viticulture) to suit the soil and climate of the region. • Selection of the grapes ( Baume & PH ) • Harvest (usually late Jan to May), by hand or machine • Crushing – crush/de stem, press • Fermentation
Wine production – red wine cont. • Red wine has skin contact from short time to weeks, warmer temperature, around 20c • Clarification (Racking, Fining, Stabilising and Filtering) • Maturation (wood mainly or stainless steel- for cask) • Blending – variety or region • Packaging ( bottle, carton or other)
Selected Descriptive Terms Fining Materials Not to be confused with filtering. A fining agent attracts to itself certain particles floating in the wine which might adversely affect the wine. Fining agents such as egg whites, powdered skim milk , isinglass (which is made from air bladders of sturgeon), bentonite clay may be used. These will sometimes be listed on the label.
Selected Descriptive Terms continued Racking The process of transferring the wine from one container to another. The result is that you leave the sediment or lees ( dead yeast cells) behind. Racking allows clarification and aids in stabilisation
Selected Descriptive Terms continued Stabilising The process used to reduce tartrate crystals (generally potassium bitartrate) they look like grains of clear sand. They may appear to be sediment in wine but are not. The process to remove them is to lower the temperature to near freezing. The crystals fall to the bottom of the vat and the wine is then racked off.
Selected Descriptive Terms continued Filtration This is used to accomplish two objectives, clarification and micro stabilisation. In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In microbial stabilization, organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage.
Methode Champenoise • Region – limited, north eastern France, Epernay, Reims, Ay • Vines - Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, Chardonnay • Harvesting – Eplucharge ( grapes are picked by hand to eliminate defective bunches ) • Pressing • First fermentation
Methode Champenoise continuing 6. The cuvee ( vat, tank or cask in which wines are fermented or blended, a specific batch) 7. Second fermentation (in bottles) Tirage liqueur ( means drawing off from casks into bottles, add yeast, wine and sugar for second fermentation) 8. Maturation – on the lees (heavy coarse sediment found in young wines)
Methode Champenoise continuing 9. Remuage – shaking & turning the bottles loosens yeast cells to neck of bottle 10. Degorgement – removal of dead yeast cells 11. Final corking Expedition liqueur - sugar and wine from the same batch to standardise sweetness, sometimes small amount of cognac is added to standardise complexity.
Transfer method • Variation to Champenoise • Wine is still bottle fermented then transferred to tanks for filtering • Re bottled with expedition liqueur • Australian “bottle fermented” on the label; eg. Great Western, Seaview, Minchinbury