Modernization and Dependency Theory Final Slides, Feb. 10 David Bell Keng-Hao Hsu Kim, Sung-Geun
David Apter: Chapter 1Toward a Theory of Modernization • Modernization as a non-economic process originates when a culture embodies an attitude of inquiry and questioning about how men make choices- moral (or normative), social (or structural), and personal (or behavioral). • Two criteria: degree of hierarchy / degree of values
The Sacred-Collectivity Model • Behaviorally, it is made up of units whose singular characteristic is potentiality. • Structurally, the political community is the means of translating potentiality into some sort of reality. • Normatively, the sacred-collectivity is an ethical or moral unit. The Secular-Libertarian Model • Behaviorally, the ability to reason, the ability to know self-interest • Structurally, allow the exercise of rationality and the pursuit of self-interest • Normatively, such a system takes certain fundamental proprieties.
Each of different political systems defines conditions of choices differently • Normative: consist of the values and priorities that combine in a moral consensus. • Structural: elaborates certain conditions of choice. • Behavioral: embodies the conditions under which individuals and groups make particular choices.
Conclusion • The general process of modernization provides a useful setting for revealing these complex political matters. • In non-industrial society, politics becomes the mechanism of integration, and authority is the critical problem confronting the leaders • A consideration of the political forms most appropriate to producing and coping with modernization
David Apter, Chapter 2:Some characteristics of modernization • Commercialization,industrialization • Innovation • Colonialism as a modernization force • Colonialism demonstrated the role of commerce and bureaucracy in modernization • Colonialism at its best has been one very useful mechanism for modernizing • Four main stages: the pioneering, bureaucratic, representative, and responsible governmental stages.
Characteristics (cont.) • Political modernization is both consequence and cause of modernization, and this is reflected in an appropriately changing governmental system. Traditionalism and development • It is difficult to separate the strands of traditionalism from those modernity. • Traditionality in its various form and patterns is an essential part of the study of modernization.
Roles • Roles, new or old, modified and adapted, given new meaning by changes, ought to be the beginning point for the analysis of modernization • The ways roles are put together reveals something of the moral basis of the community and the structure as well • Roles as indicators
Modernization, Industrialization,Development • Industrialization is that aspect of modernization so powerful in its consequences, based on the use of the machine • Modernization, as a means of identifying those social arrangements, as a means of observing how changes. • Development is a dramatic revolutionary change
The special problem of equality • Development creates inequality; modernization accentuates it. • Inequality can be seen both as a cause of modernization and as a result of it. • The achievement of equality is an ever spreading moral objective in the modern world • Intellectuals is a key indicator of the nature of the polity during modernization
David Apter, Chatper 3:The Analysis of Tradition • Culture never give way to the new change • The varied responses of tradition to modernization account for many of the differences in political forms • Also, this connection between tradition and modernity is very complex
Framework for the analysis of traditionalism • The analytical scheme applied to modernization can be used to examine tradition • Values - represents the normative and behavioral dimensions • Instrumental: does not affect social institutions fundamentally. Rather innovation is made to serve tradition • Consummatory: every aspect of society is a part of an elaborately sustained, high-solidarity structure in which religion is pervasive • Three types of authority • Hierarchical authority: structural expression of instrumental traditionalism - highly resistant to political but not to other forms of modernization • Pyramidal authority: expression of consummatory values - the chiefs at each level of the pyramid have similar powers and are relatively autonomous. resistant to all changes • Segmental authority: community political relations are treated as if they were members of a single unilinear descent group by means of "legal fiction“, ruled by particular elders in age-grade system or by councils appointed from the lineage representatives
Consequences of the differences in the cases of Ghana, Uganda, and Nigeria • Ghana (consummatory-pyramidal) • Political conflicts between Westernized elites and traditional chiefs • New elites defines the traditionalism as subversive • "The past became dead weight on the government" • Uganda (instrumental-hierarchical) • The absoluteness of the hierarchical system as "instrument"- strong resistance to the change in political institution, but very flexible to other changes • "The prerequisite for accepting any innovation on the political level was to find some real or mythical traditional counterpart" • Nigeria (instrumental-segmental) • With individualized responses to innovation and without a central traditional authority, the people adapted to commercial life and transposed the localism of the community into the individualism of the trading society • The politics of the people are above all practical and economic, not ideological and dogmatic
Conclusions • Consummatory values make it more difficult for systems to absorb exogenous change and modernization • Still some of the variations can be found among traditional systems in the face of modernization
Joseph R. Gusfield Joseph R. Gusfield, a longtime member of the sociology department at the University of California at San Diego, is currently a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in California. He is the author of The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking, Driving, and the Symbolic Order and Community: A Critical Response. http://www.press.uillinois.edu/books/catalog/83sbd7dy9780252013126.html
Modernization and Dependency Theory • “Traditional” and “modern” are neither incompatible nor internally consistent terms • Argues that no single, uniform set of processes brings modernity • Not simple dichotomies but • Heterogeneity and interpretations to be analyzed
Modernization and Dependency Theory • The idea of change in developing societies as a linear movement from traditional past toward a modernized state • Involves several significant assumptions that are questionable • For example, the linear model assumes that existing institutions and values-tradition-impedes change and are obstacles to modernization
Modernization and Dependency Theory • Explores the uses of tradition and modernity as explicit ideologies in the politics of developing nations • Primarily draws on India • Explains concepts of development and modernization as being generalized • The view that tradition and innovation are necessarily in conflict is overly abstract and unreal
Modernization and Dependency Theory • Fallacies in the Assumptions of traditional-modern polarity • Developing societies have been static • Tradition is consistent • Tradition is homogeneous • Old is replaced with the new • Tradition and modern forms are always in conflict • Tradition and modern are mutually exclusive • Modernization weakens traditions
Modernization and Dependency Theory • Desire to be modern--desire to preserve tradition • These function as ideologies • Are not always in conflict • Modernization is often linked to an upsurge in traditionalism • Tradition may be changed, stretched and modified • For new elites of developing nations its not overcoming tradition but of finding ways to blend modernity and tradition
Synthesis • Golden Oldies • Readings for literary map
Modernization Theory • Modernization as economic phenomenon • Roy Harrod and Evsey Domar: Classical growth model (Martinussen, 1997) • Played a major role in the development debate and was incorporated into many planning model in the late 20th century • Total production is a result of investment in material production apparatus • Output is a function of capital input • Other conditions, including non-economic factors, could be disregarded as irrelevant or adapting with the economic growth
Modernization Theory (cont.) • Modernization as economic phenomenon • Capital accumulation and balanced growth (Martinussen)—capital accumulation increase supply of goods create increase demand • Paul Rosenstein: “Big push” is needed for growth • Ragnar Nurkse: “Two poverty circles” • W. Arthur Lewis: the relationship between profit and saving (capital accumulation) • W.W. Rostow: Five stage theory • Unbalanced growth and income distribution • Albert Hirschman: Imbalances are inevitable • Simon Kuznets: greater inequality as the poorest experience growth slower than the average until a certain range
Modernization Theory (cont.) • Modernization as economic phenomenon • John Isbister • The task is the transformation of traditional society. The poverty is disappearing over time. The underdeveloped countries will follow the developmental stages of western
Modernization Theory (cont.) • Modernization as non-economic process • David E. Apter: “In non-industrial society, politics becomes the mechanism of integration” • Importance of traditionality: The varied responses of tradition to modernization account for many of the differences in political forms • Joseph R. Gusfield: “Traditional” and “modern” are neither incompatible nor internally consistent terms • Not simple dichotomies but heterogeneity and interpretations to be analyzed • Ferrel Heady • Modernization for political development is to grow the political capability and interlinkage of political development with other aspects of social change with multidimensional process.
Modernization Theory (cont.) • Modernization as non-economic process • Gunnar Myrdal: A theory of social stagnation and transformation (Martinussen) • Non-economic factors as central factors • Outputs and incomes • Conditions of production • Levels of living • Attitudes toward life and work • Institutions • Policies
Dependency Theory as rebuttals • Wrong assumptions of modernization • Valenzuela et al. • Center-periphery dichotomy • What varies between the developed and developing is not the degree of rationality, but the structural foundations of the incentive systems • Andre Gunder Frank • The difference in historical experience: the developed were never underdeveloped! • Five counter-arguments for modernization theory • Global extension and unity of the capitalist system, monopoly structure, uneven development should deserve much more attention
Dependency Theory as rebuttals • Break-down of dichotomy • Dieter Senghass and Ulrich Menzel—Countries (peripheral societies and centre) have very different structures and patterns of transformation-generalizations are difficult • Internal socio-economic conditions and political institutions are centrally important in determining whether an economy can be transformed • Important socio-economic variables include: • A relatively egalitarian distribution of land and incomes • High literacy level • Economic policies and institutions that support industrialization
Dependency Theory as rebuttals • Functions of modernization • Arturo Escobar • Development proceeded by creating 'abnormalities‘ • Development fostered a way of conceiving of social life as a "technical problem” • Discursive homogenization (people in the Third World are almost same: they are poor and underdeveloped • Isbister • Economic Growth in advanced capitalist countries created the third world poverty in its wake. The cause of continuing poverty is therefore the failure of the third world to break its ties with the rich capitalist countries.
Dependency Theory as rebuttals • Functions of modernization • SamirAmin (mid-1970): Two ideal types of societal models • The autocentric economy—Internal production relations primarily determine the society’s development possibilities • Close link between agriculture and manufacturing • Does engage in international trade • The peripheral economy—non-capitalist modes of production of good for luxury consumption dominated by an ‘over-developed’ export sector • Replace asymmetrical relationships with “center countries” with regional cooperation and an internal socialist development strategy
Escobar Martinussen Structuralist & IndDev Andre Gunder Frank Satellites (Periphery) Modern (developed) Valenzuela et al. World Capitalist system Modernization theory Development Dependency theory Metropoles (Center) Traditional (under-developed) Gusfield Isbister Martinussen Growth and Modern Heady Martinussen Underdev & Dependency
Reference • Martinussen, J. (1997). Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development. London: Zed Press. Chapter 4-7 • Isbister, J. (1993). Promises Not Kept: The Betrayal of Social Change in the Third World. West Hartford: Kumarian. Chapters 3 and 4 • Heady, F. (1991). Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective. New York: Marcel Dekker. Chapter 3 • Gunder Frank, A. (1996). The Development of Underdevelopment. In Jameson, K. P. and Wilber, C. (eds.). The Political Economy of Development and underdevelopment. New York: McGraw Hill. • Valenzuela, J. S. and Valenzuela, A. (1982). Modernization and Dependency. In Munoz, H. (ed.) From Dependency to Development: Strategies to Overcome Underdevelopment and Inequality. Boulder: Westview Press. • Escobar, A. (1994). The Making and Unmaking of Third World Development. In Rahnema, M. with Bawtree, V. (eds.) The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books. • Apter, D. E. (1965). The Politics of Modernization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapters 1-3 • Gusfield, J. R. (1971). Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change. In Welch, C. (ed.) Political Modernization: A Reader . Belmont: Duxbury Publishers.