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QETA/001 Engineering and Environmental health and safety

QETA/001 Engineering and Environmental health and safety. 501/1130/9 Level 3 Diploma in Engineering Technology (QCF). Session Aims:. Understand health and safety roles and responsibilities Understand the application of health and safety in the engineering environment

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QETA/001 Engineering and Environmental health and safety

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  1. QETA/001 Engineering and Environmental health and safety 501/1130/9 Level 3 Diploma in Engineering Technology (QCF)

  2. Session Aims: • Understand health and safety roles and responsibilities • Understand the application of health and safety in the engineering environment • Understand the safe moving and storing of materials • Understand environmental management

  3. 1.1 Understand Health and Safety Roles and Responsibilities In Aim 1.1 we will review: • Recognising the roles of key people involved in workplace health and safety • Recognising the roles of organisations involved in workplace health and safety • State the key duties of the employee in conforming with health and safety requirements • State the key duties of the employer in the management of health and safety • Recognise the content and application of key health and safety legislation

  4. Recognise the roles of key people involved in workplace health and safety LEARNING AIM: Understand and Identify the following roles of these people and organisations: HSE Inspectors - An inspector’s role is to; investigate (when accidents have happened or a complaint is made) whether people are at risk, to find out if something has gone wrong, require you to take action to control risks properly if you are not already complying with the law, take appropriate enforcement action in relation to any non-compliance, ranging from advice on stopping dangerous work activities to potentially taking prosecutions where people are put at serious risk, provide advice and guidance to help you comply with the law and avoid injuries and ill health at work Safety Officers – A Safety Officers role is to; provide advice, information and instruction on local OHS issues, assist in the application of OHS procedures, help manage risks and hazards in their area, report and investigate incidents, injuries and hazards and implement agreed control measures, liaise with their Head of academic/administrative unit, OH&S and other safety personnel, review and analyse injury and incident reports and data, develop injury and incident prevention strategies for their area, monitor local area compliance with OHS policy and procedures, audit local area OHS compliance with regard to risk, emergency and hazardous waste management, help promote OHS awareness. Safety Representatives - Evidence shows that workplaces with union safety reps and joint union-management safety committees have major injury rates less than half of those without. Safety reps' rights and functions include a legal right to: Represent employees in discussions with the employer on health, safety or welfare and in discussions with HSE or other enforcing authorities; investigate hazards and dangerous occurrences; investigate complaints; carry out inspections of the workplace and inspect relevant documents; attend safety committees; be paid for time spent on carrying out their functions, and to undergo training. Environmental Health Officers - investigates health hazards in a wide variety of settings, and will take action to mitigate or eliminate hazards. Usually the perception of an inspector is someone who examines restaurants, however, inspectors have much broader duties; including inspecting swimming pools, housing conditions, schools, day cares, nursing homes, and service establishments such as tattoo parlours. Depending on their jurisdiction, Environmental Health Officers often inspect wells, private water systems, and individual subsurface sewage disposal (septic) systems. Other tasks include: campground inspections, tanning salon inspections, beauty salon inspections, prison inspections and mobile home park inspection. The environmental health officer also plays a vital role in community projects as well. They may also respond to complaints such as animal bites, garbage complaints, odour complaints, or sewage overflows. Due to their educational background they can provide information and referrals with regards to; lead, radon, mould, and emerging diseases. It also overlaps with hazardous materials and many Hazmat responders are also Licensed Practitioners.

  5. Recognise the roles of key people involved in workplace health and safety LEARNING AIM: Understand and Identify the following roles of these people and organisations: Health and Safety Commission – The Commission's duties were to; Assist and encourage persons concerned with matters relevant to the operation of the objectives of the HASWA, make arrangements for and encourage research and publication, training and information in connection with its work, make arrangements for securing that government departments, employers, employees, their respective representative organisations, and other persons are provided with an information and advisory service and are kept informed of, and adequately advised on, such matters & propose regulations. Health and Safety Executive – It is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in England and Wales and Scotland. Responsibility in Northern Ireland lies with the Health and Safety Executive for Northern Ireland. It acts in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces. Local Authorities – HSE and local authorities (LAs) are responsible for enforcing health and safety legislation. Together they ensure that duty holders manage the health and safety of their workforce and those affected by their work. Trading Standards – Trading standards professionals act on behalf of consumers and business. They advise on and enforce laws that govern the way we buy, sell, rent and hire goods and services. These laws cover a wide area, which includes; consumer safety, counterfeit goods, product labelling, weights and measures, under-age sales, animal welfare. Some jobs involve all aspects of trading standards work, some specialise in one area. Duties could include; visiting local traders for routine checks or to investigate complaints, taking samples of goods for testing, checking that weighing scales and measures are accurate, checking that food labelling is correct and advertising is not misleading, advising consumers and businesses about the law, investigating suspected offences, which could include undercover or surveillance work, preparing evidence and prosecuting cases in court & inevitably, writing reports and keeping records. Environmental Health – please see Environmental Health Officers

  6. R.I.D.D.O.R – The Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations • The reporting of accidents and ill health at work has long been a legal requirement in the UK. The information enables the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and local government authorities "to identify where and how risks arise, and to investigate serious accidents". • During 2006-2007 about 30 million working days were lost due to work-related ill health, and 6 million due to workplace injury. In the same period, there were 141,350 incidents reported although it has been estimated that some 274,000 ought to have been reported. Further, 241 people were killed at work during this time. This figure obscures the fact that in 2005, 2037 people died from mesothelioma arising from previous exposure to asbestos and "thousands more from other occupational cancers and lung diseases". • The Regulations were intended to consolidate a number of earlier regulations on the reporting of accidents and diseases, generally in the workplace and specifically in the railway and offshore industries.Notification must be made by a responsible person to the relevant enforcing authority which is a body, possibly the local government authority, to which the HSE has delegated its powers. Notification must be made when any person, not necessarily an employee (reg.3): Dies as a result of an accident at work; or, when any person other than an employee suffers an injury as a result of an accident at work and that person has to be taken to hospital; or a major injury as a result of an accident at work that takes place at a hospital; or when an employee suffers a major injury as a result of an accident at work; or is incapacitated, either under his contract of employment or for seven consecutive days (three days prior to 6 April 2012), because of an accident at work, or there is a dangerous occurrence. • "Accident" includes assaults on employees and suicides on transport systems (reg.2). The report must be made by the "quickest practicable means" and confirmed by a written report within ten days (reg.3(2)). When an accident at work results in a reportable injury that, within a year of the accident, causes the death of the employee, the death itself must be reported, even if the accident and injury have already been reported (reg.4). On occasions, an injury may caused a member of staff to be off work for more than seven working days, or prevent them from completing their normal work duties. If this situation arises then the company must notify the enforcing authority of the incident. When calculating the seven consecutive days, the day of the accident is not counted but the period after is, including weekends. For example, if an employee normally works Monday to Friday, is injured on a Tuesday and does not return to work until the following Thursday, then the incident will be required to be reported. This is because he/she will have been off work for eight days i.e. Wednesday to Wednesday inclusive.

  7. Duties and Responsibilities of Employees and Employers in Health and Safety Employers: • It is an employer's duty to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees and other people who might be affected by their business. Employers must do whatever is reasonably practicable to achieve this. • This means making sure that workers and others are protected from anything that may cause harm, effectively controlling any risks to injury or health that could arise in the workplace. • Employers have duties under health and safety law to assess risks in the workplace. Risk assessments should be carried out that address all risks that might cause harm in your workplace. • Employers must give you information about the risks in your workplace and how you are protected, also instruct and train you on how to deal with the risks. • Employers must consult employees on health and safety issues. Consultation must be either direct or through a safety representative that is either elected by the workforce or appointed by a trade union. Employees: • All workers are entitled to work in environments where risks to their health and safety are properly controlled. Under health and safety law, the primary responsibility for this is down to employers. • Worker s have a duty to take care of their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected by your actions at work. Workers must co-operate with employers and co-workers to help everyone meet their legal requirements . • As a worker, if you have specific queries or concerns relating to health and safety in your workplace, talk to your employer, manager/supervisor or a health and safety representative.

  8. 5 Steps of Risk Assessment These are the 5 steps of Risk Assessment: Step 1: Identify hazards, i.e. anything that may cause harm. Step 2: Decide who may be harmed, and how. Step 3: Assess the risks and take action. Step 4: Make a record of the findings. Step 5: Review the risk assessment.

  9. Section 2 HASAWA and Section 2 of MHSW Regulations Section 2 (Health and Safety at Work Act): General duties of employers to their employees. • (1)It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. • (2)Without prejudice to the generality of an employer’s duty under the preceding subsection, the matters to which that duty extends include in particular— • (a)the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work that are, so far as is reasonably practicable, safe and without risks to health; • (b)arrangements for ensuring, so far as is reasonably practicable, safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances; • (c)the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of his employees; • (d)so far as is reasonably practicable as regards any place of work under the employer’s control, the maintenance of it in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of means of access to and egress from it that are safe and without such risks; • (e)the provision and maintenance of a working environment for his employees that is, so far as is reasonably practicable, safe, without risks to health, and adequate as regards facilities and arrangements for their welfare at work. • (3)Except in such cases as may be prescribed, it shall be the duty of every employer to prepare and as often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his general policy with respect to the health and safety at work of his employees and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of his employees. • (4)Regulations made by the Secretary of State may provide for the appointment in prescribed cases by recognised trade unions (within the meaning of the regulations) of safety representatives from amongst the employees, and those representatives shall represent the employees in consultations with the employers under subsection (6) below and shall have such other functions as may be prescribed. • (5) Repealed. • (6)It shall be the duty of every employer to consult any such representatives with a view to the making and maintenance of arrangements which will enable him and his employees to co-operate effectively in promoting and developing measures to ensure the health and safety at work of the employees, and in checking the effectiveness of such measures. • (7)In such cases as may be prescribed it shall be the duty of every employer, if requested to do so by the safety representatives mentioned in [F2subsection (4)] above, to establish, in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State, a safety committee having the function of keeping under review the measures taken to ensure the health and safety at work of his employees and such other functions as may be prescribed. Section 2 (Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations): Disapplication of these Regulations • (1) These Regulations shall not apply to or in relation to the master or crew of a sea-going ship or to the employer of such persons in respect of the normal ship-board activities of a ship’s crew under the direction of the master. • (2) Regulations 3(4), (5), 10(2) and 19 shall not apply to occasional work or short-term work involving— • (a)domestic service in a private household; or • (b)work regulated as not being harmful, damaging or dangerous to young people in a family undertaking.

  10. Sections 7 and Section 8 of the Health and Safety at Work Act Section 7 - General duties of employees at work: It shall be the duty of every employee while at work— (a) to take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work; and (b) as regards any duty or requirement imposed on his employer or any other person by or under any of the relevant statutory provisions, to co-operate with him so far as is necessary to enable that duty or requirement to be performed or complied with. Section 8 - Duty not to interfere with or misuse things provided pursuant to certain provisions. No person shall intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare in pursuance of any of the relevant statutory provisions.

  11. Health and Safety Policies in the Workplace The content of a typical Health and Safety policy should include: • Responsibilities • Risks • Consultation with employees • Safe plant and equipment • Safe handling and the use of substances • Information, instruction and supervision • Induction training • Accident and first aid monitoring • Emergency procedures & fire procedures • Key areas of risk within the parameters of health and safety for your business • Please see example on next slide of a Health and Safety policy as written by the HSE DID YOU KNOW?: If your company has more than 5 employees you must have a written Health and Safety Policy by law. If you have less it is not a legal requirement to have a Health and Safety policy, however it is recommended if your business employs somebody, even if it is only 1 person to protect you should a court case arise!

  12. Your business must have a health and safety policy, and if you have fewer than five employees, you don’t have to write anything down. Most businesses set out their policy in three sections: The statement of general policy on health and safety at work sets out your commitment to managing health and safety effectively, and what you want to achieve The responsibility section sets out who is responsible for specific actions The arrangements section contains the detail of what you are going to do in practice to achieve the aims set out in your statement of health and safety policy

  13. Important pieces of Legislation (1): The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974  (also referred to as HSWA, the HSW Act, the 1974 Act or HASAWA) is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in Great Britain. The Health and Safety Executive, with local authorities (and other enforcing authorities) is responsible for enforcing the Act and a number of other Acts and Statutory Instruments relevant to the working environment Control of Substances Harzardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations • The occupational use of nanomaterials is regulated under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH).  COSHH is the law that requires employers to control substances that are hazardous to health and includes nanomaterials. You can prevent or reduce workers' exposure to hazardous substances by: • finding out what the health hazards are; • deciding how to prevent harm to health (risk assessment); • providing control measures to reduce harm to health; • making sure they are used; • keeping all control measures in good working order; • providing information, instruction and training for employees and others; • providing monitoring and health surveillance in appropriate cases; • planning for emergencies. • Most businesses use substances, or products that are mixtures of substances. Some processes create substances. These could cause harm to employees, contractors and other people.

  14. Important pieces of Legislation (2): The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations • It sets out what you should do to comply with the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996. • Safety signs and signals are required where, despite putting in place all other relevant measures, a significant risk to the health and safety of employees and others remains. • Signs must be clear and legible, and should be used to identify actions that are prohibited (eg no access), safeguards that must be followed (eg ear protection must be worn), warning of a hazard (eg corrosive material) and to direct towards fire exits/equipment or first-aid equipment. • You should avoid using too many signs which may cause confusion. • The Regulations enact in UK law an EU Directive designed to harmonise signs across the EU so that signs across the member states will have the same meaning whichever country they are used in. Details of BS EN ISO 7010 are also included in the guidance. The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) • These Regulations, often abbreviated to PUWER, place duties on people and companies who own, operate or have control over work equipment. PUWER also places responsibilities on businesses and organisations whose employees use work equipment, whether owned by them or not. • PUWER requires that equipment provided for use at work is: • suitable for the intended use • safe for use, maintained in a safe condition and inspected to ensure it is correctly installed and does not subsequently deteriorate • used only by people who have received adequate information, instruction and training • accompanied by suitable health and safety measures, such as protective devices and controls. These will normally include emergency stop devices, adequate means of isolation from sources of energy, clearly visible markings and warning devices • used in accordance with specific requirements, for mobile work equipment and power presses

  15. Important pieces of Legislation (3): The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations • Display Screen Equipment (DSE) is a device or equipment that has an alphanumeric or graphic display screen, regardless of the display process involved; it includes both conventional display screens and those used in emerging technologies such as laptops, touch-screens and other similar devices. Do you use this type of device/equipment? • Computer workstations or equipment can be associated with neck, shoulder, back or arm pain, as well as with fatigue and eyestrain. • Surveys have found that a high proportion of DSE workers report aches, pains or eye discomfort. These aches and pains are sometimes called upper limb disorders (ULDs), which can include a range of medical conditions such as RSI. Most of these conditions do not indicate any serious ill health, but it makes sense to avoid them as far as possible. • The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 aim to protect the health of people who work with DSE. The Regulations were introduced because DSE has become one of the most common kinds of work equipment. • That doesn't mean that DSE work is risky – it isn't. ULDs can be avoided if users follow effective practice, set up their workstations properly and take breaks during prolonged use. By just taking a few simple precautions, work with DSE can be more comfortable and productive. The Personal Protective Equipment at Work (PPE) Regulations Why is PPE important? • Making the workplace safe includes providing instructions, procedures, training and supervision to encourage people to work safely and responsibly. • Even where engineering controls and safe systems of work have been applied, some hazards might remain. These include injuries to: the lungs, eg from breathing in contaminated air, the head and feet, eg from falling materials, the eyes, eg from flying particles or splashes of corrosive liquids, the skin, eg from contact with corrosive materials, the body, eg from extremes of heat or cold, PPE is needed in these cases to reduce the risk. • What do I have to do? Only use PPE as a last resort, If PPE is still needed after implementing other controls (and there will be circumstances when it is, eg head protection on most construction sites), you must provide this for your employees free of charge, You must choose the equipment carefully (see selection details below) and ensure employees are trained to use it properly, and know how to detect and report any faults Selection and use • You should ask yourself the following questions: • Who is exposed and to what? How long are they exposed for? How much are they exposed to? When selecting and using PPE: • Choose products which are CE marked in accordance with the Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002 – suppliers can advise you • Choose equipment that suits the user – consider the size, fit and weight of the PPE. If the users help choose it, they will be more likely to use it • If more than one item of PPE is worn at the same time, make sure they can be used together, eg wearing safety glasses may disturb the seal of a respirator, causing air leaks • Instruct and train people how to use it, eg train people to remove gloves without contaminating their skin. Tell them why it is needed, when to use it and what its limitations are Other advice on PPE • Never allow exemptions from wearing PPE for those jobs that ‘only take a few minutes' • Check with your supplier on what PPE is appropriate – explain the job to them • If in doubt, seek further advice from a specialist adviser Maintenance • PPE must be properly looked after and stored when not in use, eg in a dry, clean cupboard. If it is reusable it must be cleaned and kept in good condition.

  16. Important pieces of Legislation (4): The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations In relation to measures relating to employers' obligations in respect of the health and safety of workers and in relation to measures relating to the minimum health and safety requirements for the workplace that relate to fire safety and in exercise of the powers conferred on him by the said section 2 and by sections 15(1), (2), (3)(a), (5), and (9), 47(2), 52(2), and (3), 80(1) and 82(3)(a) of and paragraphs 6(1), 7, 8(1), 10, 14, 15, and 16 of Schedule 3 to, the Health and Safety at Work The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations The regulations impose requirements with respect to: • Maintenance of premises (reg.5); • Ventilation of enclosed workplaces (reg.6); • Maintenance of a "reasonable" temperature indoors and the provision of thermometers (reg.7); • Lighting, including emergency lighting, with a presumption in favour of daylight (reg.8); • Cleanliness of the workplace, furniture, furnishings and fittings; the ease of cleaning of floors, walls and ceilings; and the prevention of accumulation of waste (reg.9); • Room dimensions and space in rooms unoccupied by persons, furniture, fittings or plant • Workstations, including those outdoors, and the provision of suitable seats (reg.11); • The condition of floors (reg.12); • Routes for pedestrians or vehicles (regs.12, 17); • Protection from falling objects and from persons falling from a height or falling into a dangerous substance (reg.13); • Material or guarding of windows and other transparent or translucent walls, doors or gates and to them being easily visible (regulation 14); • The way in which windows, skylights or ventilators are opened and the position they are left in when open (reg.15); • The ability to clean windows and skylights (reg.16); • The construction of doors and gates, including the fitting of necessary safety devices (reg.18); • Escalators and moving walkways (regulation 19); • Sanitary conveniences (reg.20, Sch.1/ Pt.II); • Washing facilities (reg.21); • Supply of drinking water and of cups or other drinking vessels (reg.22); • Suitable storage for clothing and of facilities for changing clothing (regs.23, 24); and • Facilities for rest and for eating meals (reg.25).

  17. Important pieces of Legislation (5): The Manual Handling Operations Regulations • The employer's duty is to avoid Manual Handling as far as reasonably practicable if there is a possibility of injury. If this cannot be done then they must reduce the risk of injury as far as reasonably practicable. If an employee is complaining of discomfort, any changes to work to avoid or reduce manual handling must be monitored to check they are having a positive effect. However, if they are not working satisfactorily, alternatives must be considered. • The regulations set out a hierarchy of measures to reduce the risks of manual handling. These are in regulation 4(1) and as follows: • avoid hazardous manual handling operations so far as reasonably practicable; • assess any hazardous manual handling operations that cannot be avoided; • reduce the risk of injury so far as reasonably practicable. • The guidance on the Manual Handling Regulations includes a risk assessment filter and checklist to help employers assess manual handling tasks. A revised version of the MHOR was published in March 2004. It also includes a checklist to help you assess the risk(s) posed by workplace pushing and pullling activities. The First Aid at Work Regulations • As a minimum, a low-risk workplace such as a small office should have a first-aid box and a person appointed to take charge of first-aid arrangements, such as calling the emergency services if necessary. Employers must provide information about first-aid arrangements to their employees. • Workplaces where there are more significant health and safety risks are more likely to need a trained first-aider. A first-aid needs assessment will help employers decide what first aid arrangements are appropriate for their workplace. It provides guidance on: • managing the provision of first aid (first-aid kit, equipment, rooms etc.) • requirements and training for first-aiders • requirements for appointed persons • making employees aware of first-aid arrangements • first aid and the self-employed • cases where first-aid regulations do not apply

  18. 1.2 Understand the application of health and safety in the engineering environment The Learner will be able to: • Recognise the procedures in performing a risk assessment activity • Implement how to safety perform manual handling tasks • Recognise the procedures for working in dangerous circumstances • Recognise how to comply with organisational safety requirements • Implement fire and emergency evacuation plans

  19. Describe the procedures in performing a risk assessment activity and how they apply to you • What is a risk assessment? “a systematic process of evaluating the potential risks that may be involved in a projected activity or undertaking.” • What are risks and hazards? A hazard is something that can cause harm, e.g. electricity, chemicals, working up a ladder, noise, a keyboard, a bully at work, stress, etc. A risk is the chance, high or low, that any hazard will actually cause somebody harm. • What are the 5 steps to risk assessment? Step 1: Identify hazards, i.e. anything that may cause harm. Step 2: Decide who may be harmed, and how. Step 3: Assess the risks and take action. Step 4: Make a record of the findings. Step 5: Review the risk assessment. • Recording risk assessments A risk assessment must be 'suitable and sufficient', ie it should show that; a proper check was made, you asked who might be affected, you dealt with all the obvious significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved, the precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low, you involved your employees or their representatives in the process • When to perform risk assessments? You should carry out an assessment before you do work which presents a risk of injury or ill health. You only need to do a risk assessment if you are an employer or a self-employed person. 

  20. Explain how to safely perform Manual Handling Tasks How to safely perform Manual Handling Tasks: Good handling technique for lifting. There are some simple things to do before and during the lift/carry: • Remove obstructions from the route. • For a long lift, plan to rest the load midway on a table or bench to change grip. • Keep the load close to the waist. The load should be kept close to the body for as long as possible while lifting. • Keep the heaviest side of the load next to the body. • Adopt a stable position and make sure your feet are apart, with one leg slightly forward to maintain balance • Think before lifting/handling. Plan the lift. Can handling aids be used? Where is the load going to be placed? Will help be needed with the load? Remove obstructions such as discarded wrapping materials. For a long lift, consider resting the load midway on a table or bench to change grip. • Adopt a stable position. The feet should be apart with one leg slightly forward to maintain balance (alongside the load, if it is on the ground). Be prepared to move your feet during the lift to maintain your stability. Avoid tight clothing or unsuitable footwear, which may make this difficult. • Get a good hold. Where possible, the load should be hugged as close as possible to the body. This may be better than gripping it tightly with hands only. • Start in a good posture. At the start of the lift, slight bending of the back, hips and knees is preferable to fully flexing the back (stooping) or fully flexing the hips and knees (squatting). • Don’t flex the back any further while lifting. This can happen if the legs begin to straighten before starting to raise the load. • Keep the load close to the waist. Keep the load close to the body for as long as possible while lifting. Keep the heaviest side of the load next to the body. If a close approach to the load is not possible, try to slide it towards the body before attempting to lift it. • Avoid twisting the back or leaning sideways, especially while the back is bent. Shoulders should be kept level and facing in the same direction as the hips. Turning by moving the feet is better than twisting and lifting at the same time. • Keep the head up when handling. Look ahead, not down at the load, once it has been held securely. • Move smoothly. The load should not be jerked or snatched as this can make it harder to keep control and can increase the risk of injury. • Don’t lift or handle more than can be easily managed. There is a difference between what people can lift and what they can safely lift. If in doubt, seek advice or get help. • Put down, then adjust. If precise positioning of the load is necessary, put it down first, then slide it into the desired position.

  21. Manual Handling Operations Regulations Your employer's duties are set out in The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (amended). These Regulations require your employer to apply control measures to prevent or reduce the risk of injury to you from manual handling of loads. The Regulations set out a three-step approach your employer should take: • Step 1: avoid the need for any manual handling involving risk of injury, "so far as is reasonably practicable”. This may include mechanisation, redesigning the tasks you do, or breaking down the loads you handle into manageable units. • Step 2: where manual handling tasks cannot be avoided, assess the risks. In these circumstances, employers must review the risk factors associated with the manual handling you do. This includes: • your tasks; • the loads that you lift or carry, their weight and size; • your working environment, such as the amount of space you work in, how it is organised, how much you have to twist and lift; and • your individual capabilities. • Step 3: reduce the risk of injury. After the risk assessment, your employer should introduce safe systems to minimise risks that you might face. The Regulations do not specify a maximum weight to be lifted. But employers must take steps to reduce manual handling to its lowest practicable level. They must provide you with information on the weight of each load, and the heaviest side of any load.

  22. Mechanical Aids to assist with Manual Handling

  23. Confined Spaces What are the hazards? • Working in a confined space is dangerous because of the risks from noxious fumes, reduced oxygen levels, or a risk of fire. • Other dangers may include flooding/drowning or asphyxiation from some other source such as dust, grain or other contaminant. What do I have to do? • Wherever possible, you should avoid carrying out tasks in confined spaces. Where this is not possible, you must assess the risks of the particular confined space and plan how you will control those risks. For example: • if a confined space has noxious fumes, you should consider how these can be ventilated or removed • if there is a risk of liquids or gases flooding in, you should establish whether the valves can be locked shut • if someone is going into a confined space and there is not enough oxygen to breathe properly, you must provide breathing apparatus or ventilate the space to increase oxygen levels before entering • You should have emergency arrangements where necessary. If someone is working in a confined space, think about the following: • How will you know they are okay and haven’t been overcome by fumes? • How will you get them out if they are overcome? (It is not enough to rely on the emergency services.) • Dos and don'ts of working in confined spaces Do… • be aware of the risks that may occur within a confined space • make sure the person doing the work is capable and trained in both the work and the use of any emergency equipment Don’t… • work in confined spaces unless it’s essential to do so • ignore the risks – just because a confined space is safe one day doesn’t mean it will always be • let others enter a confined space until you are sure it’s safe to do so

  24. Trenches and Excavations What you need to know • Every year people are killed or seriously injured by collapses and falling materials while working in excavations. They are at risk from: • Excavations collapsing and burying or injuring people working in them; • material falling from the sides into any excavation; and • people or plant falling into excavations. Remember: • No ground can be relied upon to stand unsupported in all circumstances. • Depending on conditions, a cubic metre of soil can weigh in excess of 1.5 tonnes. • Trenchless techniques should always be considered at the design stage as they replace the need for major excavations. • Underground and overhead services may also present a fire, explosion, electrical or other hazard and will need to be assessed and managed. Collapse of excavations Temporary support – Before digging any trench pit, tunnel, or other excavations, decide what temporary support will be required and plan the precautions to be taken. • Make sure the equipment and precautions needed (trench sheets, props, baulks etc) are available on site before work starts. Battering the excavation sides – Battering the excavation sides to a safe angle of repose may also make the excavation safer. • In granular soils, the angle of slope should be less than the natural angle of repose of the material being excavated. In wet ground a considerably flatter slope will be required. Falling or dislodging material • Loose materials – may fall from spoil heaps into the excavation. Edge protection should include toeboards or other means, such as projecting trench sheets or box sides to protect against falling materials. Head protection should be worn. • Undermining other structures – Check that excavations do not undermine scaffold footings, buried services or the foundations of nearby buildings or walls. Decide if extra support for the structure is needed before you start. Surveys of the foundations and the advice of a structural engineer may be required. • Effect of plant and vehicles – Do not park plant and vehicles close to the sides of excavations. The extra loadings can make the sides of excavations more likely to collapse. Falling into excavations Prevent people from falling – Edges of excavations should be protected with substantial barriers where people are liable to fall into them. To achieve this, use: • Guard rails and toe boards inserted into the ground immediately next to the supported excavation side; or • fabricated guard rail assemblies that connect to the sides of the trench box • the support system itself, e.g. using trench box extensions or trench sheets longer than the trench depth. Inspection • A competent person who fully understands the dangers and necessary precautions should inspect the excavation at the start of each shift. • Excavations should also be inspected after any event that may have affected their strength or stability, or after a fall of rock or earth. • A record of the inspections will be required and any faults that are found should be corrected immediately.

  25. Working at Height What do I have to do? • You must make sure work is properly planned, supervised and carried out by competent people with the skills, knowledge and experience to do the job. You must use the right type of equipment for working at height. • Take a sensible approach when considering precautions. Low-risk, relatively straightforward tasks will require less effort when it comes to planning and there may be some low-risk situations where common sense tells you no particular precautions are necessary. Control measures • First assess the risks. Factors to weigh up include the height of the task, the duration and frequency, and the condition of the surface being worked on. • Before working at height work through these simple steps: • avoid work at height where it's reasonably practicable to do so • where work at height cannot be easily avoided, prevent falls using either an existing place of work that is already safe or the right type of equipment • minimise the distance and consequences of a fall, by using the right type of equipment where the risk cannot be eliminated • For each step, always consider measures that protect everyone at risk (collective protection) before measures that only protect the individual (personal protection). • Collective protection is equipment that does not require the person working at height to act for it to be effective. Examples are permanent or temporary guardrails, scissor lifts and tower scaffolds. • Personal protection is equipment that requires the individual to act for it to be effective. An example is putting on a safety harness correctly and connecting it, with an energy-absorbing lanyard, to a suitable anchor point. • Dos and don’ts of working at height Do…. • as much work as possible from the ground • ensure workers can get safely to and from where they work at height • ensure equipment is suitable, stable and strong enough for the job, maintained and checked regularly • take precautions when working on or near fragile surfaces • provide protection from falling objects • consider emergency evacuation and rescue procedures Don’t… • overload ladders – consider the equipment or materials workers are carrying before working at height. Check the pictogram or label on the ladder for information • overreach on ladders or stepladders • rest a ladder against weak upper surfaces, eg glazing or plastic gutters • use ladders or stepladders for strenuous or heavy tasks, only use them for light work of short duration (a maximum of 30 minutes at a time) • let anyone who is not competent (who doesn’t have the skills, knowledge and experience to do the job) work at height

  26. Working with Chemicals and Toxic Substances • Whenever possible, it is always best to avoid using a toxic material either by eliminating its use (by changing the method or process for example) or by substituting the toxic material with a less hazardous material. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to find a non-toxic substitute that still does the job effectively and safely. • When considering substitution, the first step is to obtain the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for all possible substitute materials. Find out about allof the hazards (health, fire, chemical reactivity) of these materials before making any changes. Caution must be exercised so as to avoid introducing a potentially more hazardous situation. Choose the least hazardous materials that can do the job effectively and safely. Learn how to work safely with them, too. • To prevent exposure to a toxic material, control measures are used. Ventilation is a very common control measure for toxic materials. Well-designed and well-maintained ventilation systems remove toxic vapours, fumes, mists or airborne dusts from the workplace before workers are exposed. Removing the contaminated air reduces the hazard of toxic materials. • For the storage of toxic materials, ensure that the storage area is clearly identified with warning signs, is clear of obstructions, and is accessible only to trained and authorized personnel. • Toxic materials must be stored properly. In general, the storage area for toxic materials should have the following characteristics. Many of these recommendations apply for safe chemical storage in general. • Safe handling and work procedures are crucial for workplaces where individuals use toxic materials. It is vital that people working with hazardous materials such as toxics are properly trained regarding the potential hazards. Remember, if, at any time an individual is unsure or has questions about working with a toxic material, they should always talk with the supervisor. • Waste toxic material must be disposed of properly. Careless disposal of any hazardous waste presents a potential hazard to many individuals who may not be trained or equipped to deal with unexpected hazardous materials (e.g. caretaking staff, garbage collectors, plumbers, water treatment plant workers, firefighters, etc.). Careless disposal can also cause significant damage to the environment. • Good housekeeping is a very important way to prevent exposure to toxic materials. A clean and orderly workplace is safer for everyone. • Personal cleanliness when working with toxic materials provides protection not only for you but protects others as well (such as co-workers and family members). • Control measures such as ventilation, enclosure and work practices are examples of the preferred methods of protecting workers. If these measures are not feasible or unable to provide appropriate worker protection, then personal protective equipment may be required. • Choosing the right PPE for a particular job is essential. MSDSs should provide general guidance. Also obtain help from a qualified professional who knows how to evaluate the hazards of a specific job, especially those related to toxics, and how to select the proper PPE. • The time to figure out what to do during an emergency is BEFORE it happens. Be ready to handle emergencies such as fire, leaks or spills quickly and safely.

  27. Working in Dust Enriched Atmospheres General ventilation • All workplaces need an adequate supply of fresh air • This can be natural ventilation, from doors, windows etc or controlled, where air is supplied and/or removed by a powered fan • If you work in an office or shop, natural ventilation will normally be enough to control dusts and vapours from cleaning materials etc • Sometimes planned, powered general ventilation is an integral part of a set of control measures, eg the welding of large fabrications in a workshop Local exhaust ventilation • Local exhaust ventilation (LEV), or extraction, is an engineering control solution to reduce exposures to dust, mist, fume, vapour or gas in a workplace • Use a properly designed LEV system that will draw dust, fume, gases or vapour through a hood or booth away from the worker • An extraction system should be easy for workers to use and enclose the process as much as possible • It should effectively capture and contain the harmful substance before it is released into the working environment • Air should be filtered and discharged to a safe place • The system should be robust enough to withstand the process and work environment. It is important to maintain it and undertake tests to ensure it is working effectively Things to avoid when applying LEV • Common errors in applying extraction are: • the effectiveness of small hoods is usually overestimated – be realistic • the hood is usually too far away from the process • the hood doesn’t surround the process enough • inadequate airflow • failure to check that the extraction continues to work • workers are not consulted, so they don’t understand the importance of extraction and do not use it properly  

  28. Working in Damp/Wet Atmospheres I. Pathophysiology • See Mycotoxin • A mycotoxin (from Greek μύκης (mykes, mukos) "fungus" and τοξικόν (toxikon) "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungi kingdom, commonly known as molds. The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops. • Damp environments have multiple health risks • Mold • House Dust mites • Cockroaches • Rodents • Microbial growth • Mold growth requirements • Temperature: 40-100 degrees F • Higher relative humidity • Most common mold contaminants • Cladosporium - is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds. • Altemaria -  as a Major Allergen for Asthma in Children • Penicillium - is a genus of ascomycetous fungi of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production. • Aspergillus - is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide. II. Symptoms: Mold and damp environment exposures • Rhinorrhea - commonly known as a runny nose, occurs relatively frequently • Cough • Pharyngitis - is the inflammation of the pharynx, a region in the back of the throat. III. Complications • Asthma Exacerbation • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis • Allergic Rhinitis • IV. Diagnosis: Evaluation of Mold Exposure • No standards of universal guidelines • Clean-up is often done empirically without testing • Most cost effective option as testing is costly • Possible guidelines • American Industrial Hygiene Association (2001) • Indoor mold levels should be less than outdoor levels • Criteria for health harm • Patient must have come in contact with agent • Measurements • Visual inspection (most important) • Surface sampling (Tape, surface wipe, dust, material) • Indoor air sampling (Vacuum, Anderson, Culture) • V. Prevention • Fix leaking plumbing and leaks in building envelope • Watch for condensation and wet spots • Prevent condensation • Vent moisture from appliances to outside • Maintain relative humidity <60% • Clean and dry wet or damp spots within 48 hours

  29. Permit to Work, Isolations, Monitoring Isolation • Where maintenance requires that normal guarding is removed, or access is required inside existing guarding, then additional measures are needed to prevent danger from the mechanical, electrical and other hazards that may be exposed. There should be clear company rules on what isolation procedures are required, and in what circumstances (for example, some cleaning of mixing machinery may require isolation, even though it might not be considered a maintenance task). • The basic rules, however, are that there should be isolation from the power source (usually, but not exclusively, electrical energy), the isolator should be locked in position (for example by a padlock), and a sign should be used to indicate that maintenance work is in progress. Isolation requires use of devices that are specifically designed for this purpose; not devices such as key-lockable emergency stops or other types of switches that may be fitted to the machine. Any stored energy (hydraulic or pneumatic power, for instance) should also be dissipated before the work starts. • If more than one maintenance worker is involved in the work, each of them should lock off the power with their own padlock. Multi-padlock hasps can be used in such circumstances. Such isolation procedures can also be applied to locking off valves for services (such as steam) and material supplies. • Before entering or working on the equipment, it is essential that the effectiveness of the isolation is verified by a suitably competent person. • Health surveillance is a system of ongoing health checks. These health checks are required by law for employees who are exposed to noise or vibration, ionising radiation, solvents, fumes, dusts, biological agents and other substances hazardous to health, or work in compressed air. Health surveillance is important for monitoring Noise, Dust, Radiation, Temperature • Detecting ill-health effects at an early stage enables better controls to prevent them getting worse, • Providing data to help better evaluate health risks, • Enables concerns to be raised about how work affects their health • Highlights lapses in workplace control measures, providing invaluable feedback to the risk assessment, and • Provides an opportunity to reinforce training and education of employees on the impact of health effects and the use of protective equipment. • A risk assessment should be used to identify any need for health surveillance however health surveillance is not a substitute for undertaking a risk assessment or using effective controls. • Health surveillance can sometimes be used to help identify where more needs to be done to control risks and where early signs of work-related ill health are detected. Permits to work • A 'permit to work' is a formal, written, safe system of work to control potentially hazardous activities. The permit details the work to be done and the precautions to be taken (for instance, they may involve limiting the movement of overhead cranes, the precautions needed for high voltage work or they might detail rescue arrangements for certain types of work). Permits should be issued, checked and signed off as being completed by someone competent to do so, and who is not involved in undertaking the work. • Permits to work will tend to be appropriate in the following types of situation:  where contractor's work interfaces with normal production activities; work on plant which must be isolated from the possible entry of fumes, liquids, steam or gases (included those from fire extinguishing systems); hot work which could cause fire or explosion, and entry into vessels, machines or confined spaces. • A 'confined space' is a place which is substantially (though not always entirely) enclosed, and where there is a risk of death or serious injury from hazardous substances or dangerous conditions (such as a lack of oxygen).These can include storage tanks, silos, reaction vessels, enclosed drains and sewers, open topped chambers, ductwork and poorly ventilated rooms. • Confined spaces are often doubly dangerous, and have regularly killed not only the first person - who is overcome by the fumes (or lack of oxygen) - but also a second or third person who have attempted a rescue without the proper equipment. HSE has produced a 7 page guide to confined spaces, specifically written for small firms, to guide you through the requirements of the Confined Spaces Regulations 1997:

  30. Fire Triangle, Extinguishers and Notices/Signs

  31. The Role of Fire Marshals Proactive and day to day duties of a Fire Warden While a workplace fire warden must not put themselves at risk while carrying out their duties, they are essentially there to carry out many elements of a fire risk assessment, to increase the chances of preventing a fire in the first place. Actual finalised tasks will change from organisation to organisation, depending on number of staff, size of building, contents of building and so on but, as an example, Fire Warden duties in the work place might include: • All fire exits and routes must remain free from obstruction and available at all times. It is crucial that final exits are opened to check they are not blocked from the outside. •  Break glass call points are visible and have a break glass point sign and emergency fire action notice adjacent to them. •  Ensuring Fire extinguishers are in their correct place, serviced, signed and stowed above floor level. •  General house-keeping is in good order i.e. paper storage and waste controlled. No room with a fixed source of ignition or heat is to be used for the storage of combustible materials. •  Smoking areas are controlled i.e. kept clean regularly and smoking receptacles emptied on a regular basis. •  Control of flammable liquids and hazardous materials. •  Electrical safety checks / pat testing. •  Rubbish and external security monitored. •  Emergency lighting tested monthly. •  Hot works management / issuing hot works permits and control of contractors. •  Fire alarm checks tested weekly. •  Staff fire inductions. •  Arranging fire drills at least once a year. •  Exit sign surveys. •  Fire door checks on a weekly basis. • Working with the fire risk assessment. • Managing all checks / paperwork / compliance documentation.

  32. 1.3 Understand the safe moving and storing of materials You will be able to: • Describe the range and applications of equipment available to assist in moving loads correctly and safetly • Recognise how to safely move loads • Recognise how to correctly store gases, oils, acids, adhesives and engineering materials

  33. Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) What you should do If your business or organisation undertakes lifting operations or is involved in providing lifting equipment for others to use, you must manage and control the risks to avoid any injury or damage. Where you undertake lifting operations involving lifting equipment you must;plan them properly, using people who are sufficiently competent,supervise them appropriately, to ensure that they are carried out in a safe manner What you should know LOLER is supported by the Safe use of lifting equipment: Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) and additional free guidance from HSE. While the ACOP is not law, this has been produced under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) and has a special status (as outlined in introductory page (ii) of the ACOP). This supports not only LOLER but also the general provisions of section 2 of the HSW Act and other regulations, including the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations and PUWER, in relation to lifting equipment and lifting operations. Other more specific legislation may also apply, for example the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations, when safety harnesses are being used for rope access work during activities such as window cleaning. Many other organisations also publish guidance material on LOLER and its application in practice, which businesses may find helpful - much of which can be found using standard web searches. Although LOLER has a wide application, any lifting equipment used on ships is generally excluded because there are other provisions for the safety of this equipment under merchant shipping legislation. Most lifting equipment and lifting accessories will also fall within the scope of the Machinery Directive, as implemented by the UK Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations. Such equipment must have been subject to conformity assessment and be appropriately CE marked and accompanied by Declaration of Conformity (DoC) before being placed on the market or brought into use. This includes lifting equipment whose only source of power is directly applied human effort (eg manually operated chain blocks and car jacks). The DoC, which must accompany the new product, is an important document, which should be retained by the user. The DoC may avoid the need for an initial thorough examination before first use in those cases where the safety of that equipment does not depend on the conditions of its installation or assembly. What is a lifting operation? Regulation 8(2) of LOLER defines a lifting operation as ' an operation concerned with the lifting or lowering of a load'. A 'load' is the item or items being lifted, which includes a person or people. What is lifting equipment? 'Lifting equipment' means work equipment for lifting and lowering loads. This includes lifting accessories and attachments used for anchoring, fixing or supporting the equipment (examples of lifting equipment) Selecting the right equipment LOLER requires that lifting equipment must be of adequate strength and stability. This adds to the general obligations under PUWER regarding the suitability of work equipment.Lifting equipment should be positioned or installed in such a way as to reduce the risk, as far as reasonably practicable, of the equipment or load striking a person, or of the load drifting, falling freely or being unintentionally released. Where people are being lifted, there are additional requirements to prevent people from being injured in / by the carrier, including more frequent thorough examinations. Marking of lifting equipment All lifting equipment, including accessories, must be clearly marked to indicate their 'safe working loads' (SWL) - the maximum load the equipment can safely lift. Where the SWL of any equipment or accessory depends on its configuration, the information provided on the SWL must reflect all potential configurations (for example, where the hook of an engine hoist can be moved to different positions, the SWL should be shown for each position). In some cases, the information should be kept with the lifting machinery, e.g. the rated capacity indicator fitted to a crane, showing the operator the SWL for any of the crane's permitted lifting configurations. Accessories must also be marked to show any characteristics that might affect their safe use. This may include the weight of the parts, where their weight is significant. Where equipment is to be used to lift people, it should be marked to indicate the number of people that can be lifted in addition to the SWL of the equipment. Lifting equipment which is not designed for lifting people - but which might be used this way in error - must be clearly marked to indicate it should not be used to lift people. Planning, organising and carrying out lifting operations All lifting operations involving lifting equipment must be;properly planned by a competent person, appropriately supervised, carried out in a safe manner, in planning any lifting operation, the identification and assessment of risk is key to identifying the most appropriate equipment and method for the job. Lifting operations range from;the very simple and commonplace, where minimal on-the-job planning by trained, competent people may be all that is needed to manage risk; to very complex operations, which require sophisticated and detailed planning / records, with very high levels of expert input, monitoring and supervision - undertaken by specially trained personnel, the complexity of the plan and the extent of the resources used to manage risk must reflect the complexity and difficulty of the lifting operation. Thorough examination Lifting equipment must be thoroughly examined in a number of situations, including: • before first use (unless there is a valid Declaration of Conformity made less than 12 months earlier) • where it depends on installation, or re-installation / assembly at another site • where it is exposed to conditions causing deterioration, liable to result in danger Records of thorough examinations should be made and, where defects are identified, they should be reported to both the person using the equipment (and to any person from whom it has been hired or leased), and the relevant enforcing authority (HSE for industrial workplaces; local authorities for most other workplaces).

  34. Safe and correct procedure for moving loads Safe Working Loads of Equipment – all equipment comes with a product data sheet on what the manufacturer recommends for each piece of equipment. Slings when lifting have a maximum lifting capacity based on the type of sling that is being used. Some have a maximum capacity of 1200kg. When lifting loads ensure there is a clearway and that you are not moving loads over peoples heads. No load should be transported over the head of another person. Please use the correct hand signals to direct crane drivers from the floor. See your site supervisor, factory manager or in house policy for what signs that are used by your workplace. 2 hands with your palms facing forwards indicates to the driver to ‘Emergency Stop’, Please ensure at all time that chains and slings are protected from sharp corners. This may cause the load to unbalance and topple or otherwise cause it to snap or cut the sling or chain. Before lifting any load on a sling or chain, ensure that the hooks are set properly and that the sling/chain length is set up correctly. If you are unsure see you operational guidelines or seek help from a trained colleague or supervisor.

  35. Correct Storage of Gases and other substances You must ensure the correct storage of gases, oils, acids, adhesives and engineering materials at all times. You must: • Follow COSHH regulations as set out earlier in the presentation – use the product COSHH Datasheet for guidance • Ensure that the storage of the items (including the design and placement of storage buildings, stillages and shelving) are adequate for what is being stored upon them and that they are not going to cause the product being stored to become insecure or hazardous whilst they are being stored in that manner. • Ventilation, Extraction and Temperature will have to be monitored to ensure that they are in line with the guidelines set out on the COSHH data sheet for the item so that they don’t release hazardous fumes at high levels and that they don’t overheat or cool down too much and change the properties of the item and make them more hazardous as a result. • Good Housekeeping and stock management is essential to ensure that stock does not go missing or end up in the hands of people who misuse them intentionally or otherwise. Bad Housekeeping may result in the HSE fining your company. • Storage of flammable liquids or compressed gases should be strictly regulated. For instance they should be kept in a stable temperature regulated environment away from heat sources and direct sunlight. You should check the COSHH data sheet for specific requirements for each product. • Oils, Acids and Adhesives have many properties which can be harmful to humans, animals and/or the environment. It is important that these are secured safely and out of the reach of untrained individuals, minors, vulnerable adults and persons who may misuse the product intentionally or otherwise. • It may be the case that special storage units may have to be purchased to store the products you are using to be compliant with Health and Safety/COSHH requirements.

  36. 1.4 Understand Environmental Management You will be able to understand: • Analyse the relevant legislation and EU directives with regard to environmental management • Explain what is contained in the environmental management systems BS EN ISO 14001 (EMS) • Explain what is climate change levy (CCL) and its implications and what is exempt • Describe what other sources of energy are available other than fossil fuels • Evaluate the criteria with regard to emissions • Recognise the requirements for safe disposal of waste

  37. Important Environmental Legislation (1): Pollution Prevention and Control Act • By law Local Authorities are required to regulate certain types of industries to reduce pollution and in particular improve air quality. The laws include The Pollution Prevention & Control Act 1999 and Environmental Permitting (England and Wales Regulations) 2010 which together govern Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and Local Authority Pollution Prevention and Control. Our role in the regime is to issue permits which set controls and emission standards to minimise pollution from certain industrial activities. The Activities which require a permit can be found in Part 2 of Schedule 1 of the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010. Once a Permit has been issued we routinely inspect the activity, those with a higher pollution potential are inspected more frequently. If a company breaches the conditions we set in the Permit we can take enforcement action which may lead to prosecution. • The activities listed in the Environmental Permitting regulations 2010 are split into three categories namely A1, A2 and Part B activities.  Environmental Protection Act The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (initialism: EPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that as of 2008 defines, within England and Wales and Scotland, the fundamental structure and authority forwaste management and control of emissions into the environment. Part I establishes a general regime by which the Secretary of State, as of 2008 the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, can prescribe any process or substance and set limits on it in respect of emissions into the environment. Authorisation and enforcement was originally in the hands of HM Inspectorate of Pollution and local authorities but, as of 1996, became the responsibility of the Environment Agency (EA) and Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). Operation of a prescribed process is prohibited without approval and there are criminal sanctions against offenders. Part II sets out a regime for regulating and licensing the acceptable disposal of controlled waste on land. Controlled waste is any household, industrial and commercial waste (s.75(4)). Unauthorised or harmful depositing, treatment or disposal of controlled waste is prohibited with prohibition enforced by criminal sanctions. Further, there is a broad duty of care on importers, producers, carriers, keepers, treaters or disposers of controlled waste to prevent unauthorised or harmful activities. Breach of the duty of care is a crime. The Act demands that the Secretary of State create a National Waste Strategy for England and Wales, and the SEPA, a strategy for Scotland. Local authorities have duties to collect controlled waste and to undertake recycling. There are criminal penalties on households and businesses who fail to cooperate with the local authorities' arrangements. Enforcement of these penalties sometimes proves controversial.[2] Part IIA was inserted by the Environment Act 1995 and defines a scheme of identification and compulsory remedial action for contaminated land. Part III defines a class of statutorynuisances over which the local authority can demand remedial action supported by criminal penalties. Part IV defines a set of criminal offences concerning litter. Part VI defines a regime of statutory notification and risk assessment for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). There are duties with respect to the import, acquisition, keeping, release or marketing of GMOs and the Secretary of State has the power to prohibit specific GMOs if there is a danger of environmental damage. Part VII of the Act created three new organisations: the Nature Conservancy Council for England, the Nature Conservancy Council for Scotland, and the Countryside Council for Wales. Since 1990, the English and Scottish Councils have been the subject of considerable reorganisation and, as of 2008, only the Welsh council is still governed by the Act.

  38. Important Environmental Legislation (2): Clean Air Act • The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952. It was in effect until 1964, and sponsored by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government in England and the Department of Health for Scotland. • The Act introduced a number of measures to reduce air pollution, especially by introducing 'smoke control areas' in some towns and cities in which only smokeless fuels could be burned. By shifting homes' sources of heat towards cleaner coals, electricity, and gas, it reduced the amount of smoke pollution and sulphur dioxide from household fires. Reinforcing these changes, the Act also included measures to relocate power stations away from cities, and for the height of some chimneys to be increased. • The Act was an important milestone in the development of a legal framework to protect the environment. Radioactive Substances Act • The Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA93) deals with the control of radioactive material and disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. • On 6 April 2010 the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010came into force. These new regulations repeal, amend and replace much of Radioactive Substances Act 1993 in England and Wales.

  39. Important Environmental Legislation (3): Controlled Waste Regulations Waste which is not to be treated as household waste, industrial waste or commercial waste 3.—(1) Waste which is not Directive waste is not to be treated as household waste, industrial waste or commercial waste for the purposes of Part 2 of the Act. (2) The following waste (where it is Directive waste) is not to be treated as household waste, industrial waste or commercial waste for the purposes of Part 2 of the Act— (a) sewage, sludge or septic tank sludge which is treated, kept or disposed of (otherwise than by means of mobile plant) within the curtilage of a sewage treatment works as an integral part of the operation of those works; (b) sludge which is supplied or used in accordance with the Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations 1989; (c) septic tank sludge which is used on agricultural land within the meaning of those Regulations. (3) Animal by-products (where they are Directive waste) which are collected and transported in accordance with Article 21(1) to (3) of the Animal By-Products Regulation are not to be treated as household waste, industrial waste or commercial waste for the purposes of section 34 of the Act. (4) In this regulation— (a) “animal by-products” has the meaning given in Article 3(1) of the Animal By-Products Regulation; (b) “the Animal By-Products Regulation” means Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down health rules as regards animal byproducts and derived products not intended for human consumption and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 (Animal by-products Regulation)(b). Household, industrial and commercial waste 4. Subject to regulation 3, Schedule 1 (household, industrial and commercial waste) has effect. Litter and refuse 5. Part 2 of the Act has effect as if references to controlled waste collected under section 45 include references to litter and refuse collected under sections 89(1)(a) and (c), 92(9) and 92C(3) of the Act(c). Dangerous Substances and Preparations and Chemical Regulations The directive applies to pure chemicals and to mixtures of chemicals (preparations) that are placed on the market in the European Union, therefore it does not apply directly to substances created purely for research purposes. Additional rules concerning preparations are contained in the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC):[5] these are very similar to the rules contained in the Dangerous Substances Directive 67/548/EEC.[6] The directive does not apply to the following groups of substances and preparations (Art. 1): • Cosmetics, which are covered by the Cosmetics Directive • Food for humans or animals • Medicines • Pesticides • Radioactive materials • Waste The directive does not apply to the transport of dangerous substances or preparations. Article 2 of the directive lists the classes of substances or preparations that are considered to be dangerous. Some, but not all, of these classes are associated with a chemical hazard symbol and/or a code. • Explosives (E) • Oxidizing agents (O) • Flammable substances or preparations, classified as extremely flammable (F+), highly flammable (F) • Toxic substances or preparations, classified as very toxic (T+) or toxic (T) • Harmful substances or preparations (Xn) • Corrosive substances or preparations (C) • Irritants (Xi) • Sensitizers • Carcinogens (Carc.), classified into three categories • Mutagens (Mut.), classified into three categories • Substances or preparations that are toxic for reproduction (Repr.), classified into three categories • Substances or preparations that are dangerous for the environment (N) • Substances or preparations falling into one or more of these classes are listed in Annex I of the directive, which is regularly updated. A public database of substances listed in Annex I is maintained by the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection.

  40. Environmental Management Systems • Environmental management system or (EMS), refers to the management of an organization's environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental protection within the companies or organisations scope of operation.

  41. ISO Standards ISO 14001 is the principal management system standard which specifies the requirements for the formulation and maintenance of an EMS. This helps to control your environmental aspects, reduce impacts and ensure legal compliance. ISO 14004:2004 provides guidance on the establishment, implementation, maintenance and improvement of an environmental management system and its coordination with other management systems. The guidelines are applicable to any organization, regardless of its size, type, location or level of maturity. While the guidelines are consistent with the ISO 14001:2004 environmental management system model, they are not intended to provide interpretations of the requirements of ISO 14001:2004.

  42. Climate Change Levy The Climate Change Levy (CCL) is a tax on energy delivered to non-domestic users in the United Kingdom. Its aim is to provide an incentive to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions; however, there have been ongoing calls to replace it with a proper carbon tax. Exemptions to the Climate Change Levy (CCL) include: • Fuel used by domestic or transport sectors • Fuel used for the production of other forms of energy • Very small firms using a domestic amount of energy (e.g. not exceeding 145 KW per day of gas, 33 KW hours per day of electricity etc.) • Oils which are already subject to excise duty • Electricity generated from renewable energy • Fuels used jointly as a feedstock and an energy source with in the same process (e.g. coke in steel-making) • Electricity used in electrolysis processes e.g. the chlor-alkali process or primary aluminium smelting

  43. Motors/Compressors Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) scheme: The ECA scheme means that a business can invest in energy-saving plant or machinery that might otherwise be too expensive. The first year allowances let businesses set 100% of the cost of the assets against taxable profits in a single tax year. This means the company can write off the cost of the new plant or machinery against the business’s taxable profits in the financial year the purchase was made. An ECA is claimed through a business’s income or corporation tax return in the same way as any other capital allowance. HM Revenue and Customs is responsible for the tax-related aspects of the ECA scheme. Products included: • Air to air energy recovery • Automatic monitoring and targeting (AMT) equipment • Boiler equipment • Combined heat and power (CHP) • Compressed air equipment • Heat pumps • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment • High speed hand air dryers • Lighting • Motors and drives • Pipework insulation • Refrigeration equipment • Solar thermal systems • Uninterruptible power supplies • Warm air and radiant heaters • Waste heat to electricity conversion equipment

  44. Alternative Sources of Energy

  45. Industrial Emissions: Air Pollution: is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Noise pollution or  is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Vibration Emissions: Tools with handles, whether the main handle or an auxiliary handle, can resonate which influences measured vibration emissions. These have to be monitored to ensure they don’t harm others or the environment. Light pollution, also known as photopollution or luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple; some of them may not be known yet.

  46. Safe Disposal of Waste Materials Carriers of waste material • You must follow these steps if your business collects and transports hazardous waste in England, eg you’re a waste carrier or you move your own waste. • Register as a waste carrier. • Check parts A and B of the consignment note and the waste before you accept it – make sure the waste is classified correctly and you’re collecting it from business premises that are registered or exempt. • Separate waste correctly when you load it for transportation. • Fill in the part of the consignment note that applies to you. • Leave one copy of the consignment note with the waste producer or holder and keep 2 copies – these must stay with the waste until it reaches its destination. • Take the waste to the destination on the consignment note – it must be an authorised waste site. • Keep records (known as a ‘register’) for one year. • You must keep records at your head office. Records you must keep You must keep copies of: • consignment notes • any related documents, eg ‘carrier schedules’ (list of carriers when there is more than one), records of rejected loads When disposing of waste materials safely it is important to; label waste materials, dispose of them into the correct places, dispose of all contaminated PPE correctly, follow radioactive waste guidelines, follow COSHH guidelines for the disposal of waste products and monitor and adequately and sufficiently secure the waste items to prevent the accidental spillage or release of waste materials. Check if your waste is hazardous Waste is generally considered hazardous if it (or the material or substances it contains) are harmful to humans or the environment. Examples of hazardous waste include: • asbestos • chemicals, eg brake fluid or print toner • batteries • solvents • pesticides • oils (except edible ones), eg car oil • equipment containing ozone depleting substances, eg fridges • hazardous waste containers Records you must keep You must keep your copies of: • consignment notes • consignee returns – you’ll get these from businesses that receive your waste (consignees) • any related documents, eg ‘carrier schedules’ (list of carriers when there is more than one), records of rejected loads • If these documents aren’t accurate or complete, you must keep a record of any missing information.

  47. Preventing Leakage and Controlling Waste It is imperative for companies to consider how to control waste in every way, this also means preventing the spillage of substances that could pollute or could be hazardous to human health. If you are storing a container with a substantial quantity of a harmful substance or a controlled substance. It is imperative that you have a spillage control system that can take the displaced product should it leak to prevent contact with the environment or people. Meaning if you have 500 litres of oil, you will need a 500 litre overspill as well.

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