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The Egyptian Empire

The Egyptian Empire

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The Egyptian Empire

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  1. The Egyptian Empire

  2. Quick Review • The Nile Valley – Regular predictable flooding allowed people to settle in this rich fertile river valley. • Natural Barriers • Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt Unit • Egyptian writing system – Hieroglyphics • Rise in governments – advances of farming, crafts, and trade created the need. Government responsible for public services • Social Classes - Family Life

  3. Quick Review • Religion - belief in many gods and goddesses • Main god – Re the sun god Life after Death – Book of the Dead - magical spells to help obtain life after death Embalming – leads to introduction to medicine Mummies – buried in tombs with personal items

  4. The Old Kingdom2600 BC – 2300 BC • During this time the Egyptians built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs • Great Pyramid – King Khufu – Great Pyramid of Giza

  5. Land of Confusion • About 2300 BC, the pharaohs lost control of Egypt as nobles battled one another for power • About 200 years of confusion follows

  6. The Middle Kingdom2050 BC – 1670 BC • Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power. • The capital is moved south – from Memphis to Thebes

  7. The Middle Kingdom2050 BC – 1670 BC • In Thebes, order is restored and Egypt becomes stable • This is the beginning of what historians call, The Middle Kingdom • It is during this time, Egyptians enjoyed a golden age of stability, prosperity, and achievement.

  8. The Drive for More Land • During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt takes control of new lands and makes them pay tribute – or forced payments, causing Egypt to become even more wealthier • Pharaohs order new waterways and dams increasing the amount of land being farmed and built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea

  9. The Arts Blossom • During the Middle Kingdom • Arts – Painters covered walls of temples and tombs with colorful scenes of the gods and daily life • Literature – Poets wrote love songs and tributes to the pharaohs • Architecture – Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs west of the Nile River. This area became known as the Valley of the Kings.

  10. Valley of the Kings

  11. Who Were the Hyksos? • The Middle Kingdom ends in 1670 BC • As before, Nobles were plotting to take power from the pharaohs • Problem this time • Hyksos – from western Asia attacked Egypt • They were major warriors • They crossed the desert in horse-drawn chariots and used weapons made of bronze and iron. Egyptians had always fought on foot with copper and stone weapons

  12. Prince Ahmose • The Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years • Around 1550 BC, and Egyptian prince named Ahmose led an uprising that drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. • Ahmose Reign begins a new period called The New Kingdom

  13. The New Kingdom1550 BC – 1080 BC • During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power • Egypt becomes even richer and powerful • Most pharaohs made empire building a priority – fought wars east into western Asia

  14. A Woman RulerQueen Hatshepsut • About 1473 BC Hatshepsut came to power • She ruled first with her husband, then after his death, she ruled on behalf of her young nephew • She finally crowned herself queen and becomes one of the few women to rule Egypt

  15. Queen Hatshepsut • She was more interested with trade than conquest • Egyptian traders sailed along the coast of East Africa exchanging breads, metal tools and weapons for gold, ivory, ebony and incense • These trade journey brought even more wealth to Egypt

  16. Hatshepsut’s legacies • Hatshepsut used some of this wealth to build monuments • One of her greatest projects was a great temple and tomb in the limestone cliffs of the Valley of the Kings

  17. Expanding the Empire • When Hatshepsut died, her nephew becomes pharaoh – King Thutmose III • Under Thutmose III, Egypt began aggressive wars of conquest • Thutmose’s armies expanded north to Mesopotamia and south of Nubia • Under Thutmose, Egypt controlled more territory than it ever had before

  18. Thutmose’s Empire • Empire grew rich from trade and tribute • In addition to taking gold, copper, ivory and other valuables from conquered peoples, Egypt also enslaved prisoners of war.

  19. Legacies of Two Pharaohs • Amenhotep IV – becomes pharaoh c. 1370 BC and tries to led Egypt in a new direction • He notices that Egypt’s priests were gaining too much power • He introduces a new religion that throws out all gods, except Aton • When the priests resisted, Amenhotep IV removed them from their position, seized their lands, and closed the temples

  20. Legacies of Two Pharaohs • Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaton – which means “Spirit of Aton” • The Egyptian people feel that these changes have been an attack on Egypt itself. • They refuse to accept Aton as the only god • Akhenaton is so devoted to his new religion, he neglects his duties as pharaoh, his administration is inexperienced

  21. The Hittites • The Hittites attack Egypt • Egypt lost most of its land in western Asia • Egypt’s empire shrinks as a result

  22. The Boy King • When Akhenaton died, his son-in-law inherited the throne • King Tutankhamen – only 10 years old • King Tut relies on help from palace officials and priests and restores the old religion • He rules Egypt for only 9 years, then dies unexpectedly

  23. Why the fascination with Tut? • He played a very small role in Egypt’s history • He becomes more popular after his tomb was discovered in 1922AD by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter.

  24. King Tut’s Tomb • Tut’s tomb contained the king’s mummy and treasures including a brilliant gold mask of the young king’s face. • This tomb discovery was a thrilling discovery because most royal tombs in Egypt were looted by robbers long ago.

  25. The End of the New Kingdom • Ramses II – king from 1279 BC to 1213 BC • Under his rule • Egypt regained lands in western Asia • Launched an ambitious building program – constructing several major temples – many built by slaves

  26. Karnak at Thebes • The most magnificent temple built under Ramses II

  27. Remember? • Temples were considered houses for the gods and goddesses • Most Egyptians prayed at home • Temples used by priests to preform daily temple rituals • Sometimes temples served as banks storing valuables such as gold, jewelry, oils, and cloth

  28. Egypt’s decline and fall • After Ramses II, Egypt’s power began to fade • By 1150 BC, Egypt’s empire was lost and they only controlled the Nile delta • By 900 BC, Egypt came under the rule of one outside group after another • Libya • Kush • Assyrians • //