Quick Review • The Nile Valley – Regular predictable flooding allowed people to settle in this rich fertile river valley. • Natural Barriers • Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt Unit • Egyptian writing system – Hieroglyphics • Rise in governments – advances of farming, crafts, and trade created the need. Government responsible for public services • Social Classes - Family Life
Quick Review • Religion - belief in many gods and goddesses • Main god – Re the sun god Life after Death – Book of the Dead - magical spells to help obtain life after death Embalming – leads to introduction to medicine Mummies – buried in tombs with personal items
The Old Kingdom2600 BC – 2300 BC • During this time the Egyptians built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs • Great Pyramid – King Khufu – Great Pyramid of Giza
Land of Confusion • About 2300 BC, the pharaohs lost control of Egypt as nobles battled one another for power • About 200 years of confusion follows
The Middle Kingdom2050 BC – 1670 BC • Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power. • The capital is moved south – from Memphis to Thebes
The Middle Kingdom2050 BC – 1670 BC • In Thebes, order is restored and Egypt becomes stable • This is the beginning of what historians call, The Middle Kingdom • It is during this time, Egyptians enjoyed a golden age of stability, prosperity, and achievement.
The Drive for More Land • During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt takes control of new lands and makes them pay tribute – or forced payments, causing Egypt to become even more wealthier • Pharaohs order new waterways and dams increasing the amount of land being farmed and built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea
The Arts Blossom • During the Middle Kingdom • Arts – Painters covered walls of temples and tombs with colorful scenes of the gods and daily life • Literature – Poets wrote love songs and tributes to the pharaohs • Architecture – Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs west of the Nile River. This area became known as the Valley of the Kings.
Who Were the Hyksos? • The Middle Kingdom ends in 1670 BC • As before, Nobles were plotting to take power from the pharaohs • Problem this time • Hyksos – from western Asia attacked Egypt • They were major warriors • They crossed the desert in horse-drawn chariots and used weapons made of bronze and iron. Egyptians had always fought on foot with copper and stone weapons
Prince Ahmose • The Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years • Around 1550 BC, and Egyptian prince named Ahmose led an uprising that drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. • Ahmose Reign begins a new period called The New Kingdom
The New Kingdom1550 BC – 1080 BC • During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power • Egypt becomes even richer and powerful • Most pharaohs made empire building a priority – fought wars east into western Asia
A Woman RulerQueen Hatshepsut • About 1473 BC Hatshepsut came to power • She ruled first with her husband, then after his death, she ruled on behalf of her young nephew • She finally crowned herself queen and becomes one of the few women to rule Egypt
Queen Hatshepsut • She was more interested with trade than conquest • Egyptian traders sailed along the coast of East Africa exchanging breads, metal tools and weapons for gold, ivory, ebony and incense • These trade journey brought even more wealth to Egypt
Hatshepsut’s legacies • Hatshepsut used some of this wealth to build monuments • One of her greatest projects was a great temple and tomb in the limestone cliffs of the Valley of the Kings
Expanding the Empire • When Hatshepsut died, her nephew becomes pharaoh – King Thutmose III • Under Thutmose III, Egypt began aggressive wars of conquest • Thutmose’s armies expanded north to Mesopotamia and south of Nubia • Under Thutmose, Egypt controlled more territory than it ever had before
Thutmose’s Empire • Empire grew rich from trade and tribute • In addition to taking gold, copper, ivory and other valuables from conquered peoples, Egypt also enslaved prisoners of war.
Legacies of Two Pharaohs • Amenhotep IV – becomes pharaoh c. 1370 BC and tries to led Egypt in a new direction • He notices that Egypt’s priests were gaining too much power • He introduces a new religion that throws out all gods, except Aton • When the priests resisted, Amenhotep IV removed them from their position, seized their lands, and closed the temples
Legacies of Two Pharaohs • Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaton – which means “Spirit of Aton” • The Egyptian people feel that these changes have been an attack on Egypt itself. • They refuse to accept Aton as the only god • Akhenaton is so devoted to his new religion, he neglects his duties as pharaoh, his administration is inexperienced
The Hittites • The Hittites attack Egypt • Egypt lost most of its land in western Asia • Egypt’s empire shrinks as a result
The Boy King • When Akhenaton died, his son-in-law inherited the throne • King Tutankhamen – only 10 years old • King Tut relies on help from palace officials and priests and restores the old religion • He rules Egypt for only 9 years, then dies unexpectedly
Why the fascination with Tut? • He played a very small role in Egypt’s history • He becomes more popular after his tomb was discovered in 1922AD by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter.
King Tut’s Tomb • Tut’s tomb contained the king’s mummy and treasures including a brilliant gold mask of the young king’s face. • This tomb discovery was a thrilling discovery because most royal tombs in Egypt were looted by robbers long ago.
The End of the New Kingdom • Ramses II – king from 1279 BC to 1213 BC • Under his rule • Egypt regained lands in western Asia • Launched an ambitious building program – constructing several major temples – many built by slaves
Karnak at Thebes • The most magnificent temple built under Ramses II
Remember? • Temples were considered houses for the gods and goddesses • Most Egyptians prayed at home • Temples used by priests to preform daily temple rituals • Sometimes temples served as banks storing valuables such as gold, jewelry, oils, and cloth
Egypt’s decline and fall • After Ramses II, Egypt’s power began to fade • By 1150 BC, Egypt’s empire was lost and they only controlled the Nile delta • By 900 BC, Egypt came under the rule of one outside group after another • Libya • Kush • Assyrians • //