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The Reproductive System

The Reproductive System

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The Reproductive System

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  1. The Reproductive System

  2. To produce a new life Function:

  3. Even though the anatomic parts differ in males and females, both systems have the same type of organs • Gonads, or sex glands • Ducts or tubes to carry the sex cells and secretions • Accessory organs

  4. Male Reproductive System

  5. The male reproductive system consists of the: • Testes • Epididymis • Vas deferens • Seminal vesicles • Ejaculatory ducts • Urethra • Prostate gland • Cowper’s glands • Penis

  6. Two male gonads, or sex glands • Located in the scrotum, a sac suspended between the thighs outside the body • Because the scrotum is outside the body, the temperature is lower, which is ideal for the production of sperm • Produce the male sex cell called the sperm or (spermatozoa) in seminiferous tubules located within each testis testes

  7. The testes also produce male hormones • The main hormone is testosterone • Hormones help sperm mature • Hormones are also responsible for secondary male sex characteristics such as body hair, facial hair, larger muscles, and a deeper voice. Testes (cont..)

  8. Tightly coiled tube about 20 feet long • Located above the testes in the scrotum • Receives sperm from the testes • Stores sperm while they mature and become motile • Also produces a fluid that becomes part of the semen (fluid released during intercourse) • Connects with the next tube called the vas deferens epididymis

  9. Receives sperm and fluid from the epididymis • On each side, a vas deferen joins with the epididymis • Extends up into the abdominal cavity • Curves behind the urinary bladder • Joins with a seminal vesicle • Acts as a passageway and as a temporary storage area for sperm • Vas deferens are cut during a vasectomy to produce sterility in the male Vas deferens

  10. Two small, pouchlike tubes • Located behind the bladder by the junction of the vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts • Contain a glandular lining that produces a thick yellow fluid • Rich in sugar and other substances • Provides nourishment for sperm • Fluid also makes up a large part of semen Seminal vesicles

  11. Two short tubes Formed by the union of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles Carry sperm and fluids, now known as semen, through the prostate gland into the urethra Ejaculatory ducts

  12. Tube that extends from the urinary bladder through the penis to the outside of the body Carries urine from the urinary bladder and semen from the reproductive tubes urethra

  13. Doughnut-shaped gland • Located below the urinary bladder on either side of the urethra • Produces an alkaline secretion • Increase sperm motility • Neutralizes acidity in the vagina • Provides a more favorable environment for sperm Prostate gland

  14. Muscular tissue in the prostate contracts during ejaculation (expulsion of semen from the body) to aid in expulsion of semen into the urethra When the prostate contracts, it also closes off the urethra and prevents the passage of urine through the urethra Prostate gland (cont…)

  15. Also called bulbourethral • Two small glands located below the prostate • Connected by small tubes to the urethra • Produce mucus that serves as a lubricant for intercourse • Also secrete an alkaline fluid • Decrease the acidity of urine residue in urethra • Provides a more favorable environment for sperm Cowper’s glands

  16. External male reproductive organ in front of scrotum • Glans penis • Enlarged structure at distal end • Covered with a prepuce, or foreskin • Circumcision is a surgical removal of this prepuce • Penis is made of spongy erectile tissue • During sexual arousal, the spaces in this tissue become filled with blood • Causes an erection of the penis penis

  17. Male organ of intercourse • Deposits semen in the vagina • Provides for the elimination of urine from the bladder through the urethra Functions of penis

  18. Diseases and abnormal conditions of the male reproductive system

  19. Inflammation of the epididymitis • Causes: • Pathogenic organisms such as gonococcus, streptococcus, and staphylococcus • Frequently occurs with a urinary tract or prostate infection, mumps, or sexually transmitted diseases Epididymitis

  20. If epididymitis is not treated promptly, it can cause scarring and sterility • Symptoms: • Intense pain in testes, swelling, and fever • Treatment: • antibiotics, cold applications, scrotal support, pain medications Epididymitis (cont…)

  21. Inflammation of the testes • Causes: • Mumps, pathogens, or injury • Can lead to atrophy of the testes and cause sterility • Symptoms: • Swelling of the scrotum, pain, and fever Orchitis

  22. Treatment: • Antibiotics (if indicated), antipyretics, scrotal support, and pain medication • Prevention: • Mumps vaccinations, following measures to prevent sexually transmitted diseases Orchitis (cont…)

  23. Twisting of the spermatic cord, which cuts off blood supply to the testicles and surrounding strictures within the scrotum. Symptoms: Sudden onset, SEVERE testicular or scrotal pain Treatment: Manual correction or surgical repair. Testicular torsion

  24. Testicular Torsion

  25. Enlargement of the prostate gland • Common in men over the age of 50 • Causes: • Benign condition caused by inflammation, tumor, or a change in hormonal activity (BPH) • Malignant or cancerous condition Prostatic hypertrophy or hyperplasia

  26. A DRE (digital rectal exam is recommended annually for men over the age of 50 along with a blood test PSA (prostate specific antigen)

  27. Symptoms: • Difficulty in starting to urinate • Frequent urination, nocturia, and dribbling • Urinary infections • Urinary retention if urethra is blocked from large prostate Prostatic hypertrophy (cont…)

  28. Treatment: • Initial: fluid restriction at bedtime, antibiotics for infection if indicated, prostatic massage • Prostatectomy: • Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate • Transurethral Resection (TURP): removal of part of the prostate by inserting a scope through the urethra and resecting/removing large area • Perineal or suprapubic (above the pubis bone) incision Prostatic hypertrophy (cont..)

  29. TURP

  30. TURP

  31. TURP

  32. TURP

  33. Prostatectomy-Perineal

  34. Prostatectomy

  35. Cancer of the prostate gland • Symptoms: • Can have the same symptoms as prostatic hypertrophy, or it may not have any symptoms at all • Screening blood test, called a prostatic specific antigen (PSA) test can be done to detect a substance released by prostate cancer cells Prostatic carcinoma

  36. Digital rectal examination (DRE) may reveal a hard abnormal mass in the prostate gland To diagnose cancer, a tissue biopsy of the prostate is usually performed Prostate CA

  37. Treatment: • Prostatectomy • Radiation • Estrogen therapy to decrease the effects of testosterone • Orchiectomy, surgical removal of the testes may be performed to stop the production of testosterone • Radioactive seeds can also be implanted in the prostate to destroy the cancerous cells Prostate ca

  38. If detected early, prognosis is very good All men over the age of 50 are encouraged to have annual prostate examinations. Prognosis of prostate cancer

  39. Highly malignant form of cancer that can metastasize (spread) very quickly • Occurs most frequently in men from age 20-35 • Symptoms: • Painless swelling of the testes, a heavy feeling, and an accumulation of fluid • Treatment: • Removal of the testis, chemotherapy and/or radiation Testicular Cancer

  40. Recommendation is that men begin monthly testicular self-examinations at the age of 15 • To perform the examination, the male should examine the testicles after a warm shower then the scrotal skin is relaxed • Each testicle should be examined separately with both hands by placing the index and middle fingers under the testicle and the thumbs on the top • Testicle should be rolled gently between the fingers to feel for lumps, nodules, or extreme tenderness • Males should examine the testes for any signs of swelling or changes in appearance • If any abnormalities are noted, the male should be examined by a physician as soon as possible. Testicular self-examination

  41. Undescended Testicle

  42. Female Reproductive System

  43. Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Vagina Bartholin’s glands Vulva Breasts Structures

  44. ovaries

  45. Female gonads, or sex glands Small almond-shaped glands Located in pelvic cavity and attached to uterus by ligaments ovaries

  46. Follicles • Thousands of small sacs in the ovaries • Each follicle contains an immature ovum, or female sex cell • When an ovum matures, the follicle enlarges and then ruptures to release the mature ovum • Process is called ovulation and usually occurs about once a month ovaries