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EXPLOITATION OF GAS HYDRATES AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE

EXPLOITATION OF GAS HYDRATES AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE

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EXPLOITATION OF GAS HYDRATES AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE

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  1. EXPLOITATION OF GAS HYDRATES AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE K. Muralidhar Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Kanpur 208016 India

  2. Organization of the talk • Energy scenario • What are gas hydrates • Resource availability • Exploitation of gas hydrates • Environmental aspect

  3. Assessing energy sources • Demand • Availability • Technology • Efficiency • Environmental impact • Cost

  4. The 21st century imbalance • Annual population increases at 2%. • Energy use per capita increases at 2% per year. • As a result, energy consumption increases at 4% per year. • Doubles every 36 years!

  5. World fossil consumption (1950-2003) Coal Oil Natural Gas Source: World Watch Institute, 2003

  6. Projected world energy supply

  7. Efficiencies of power technologies 80

  8. CO2 emissions [includes Construction/Operation/Fuel Preparation]

  9. Cost of electricity (global average, 1998)

  10. Equipment cost in IRs/kWh for electricity generation Solar Thermal 6 - 8 Nuclear 5 - 9 Natural Gas 5 - 9 Hydro 5 - 18.5 Wind 4.5 - 7 Coal 3.5 - 7 Geothermal 4.25 - 7 Biomass 4.15 - 8

  11. Operations and maintenance costs IRs/kWh Wind 1.3 Coal 2 Nuclear 2.2 Geothermal 2.7 Gas 3.1 Wood 3.1 Oil 4.1 Waste 4.5

  12. Hydrogen substitution

  13. Summary • Using every yardstick: availability, efficiency, environment, and cost, the 21st century will see an irrevocable shift towards gas-based energy generation

  14. Large scale power production from gas Energy production from gas relies on the following technologies: • Gas turbines • Fuel cells (futuristic) Gas hydrates are a source of methane and can be integrated with these technologies.

  15. Indian scenario • With no major findings of gas reserves it is essential to look for other alternative resources such as gas hydrates. • Vast continental margins with substantial sediment thickness and organic content, provide favorable conditions for occurrence of gas hydrates in the deep waters adjoining the Indian continent.

  16. Indian scenario (continued) • Caution: Gas hydrates hold the danger of natural hazards associated with sea floor stability, release of methane to ocean and atmosphere, and gas hydrates disturbed during drilling pose a safety problem. • Research: Development of a field model is quite necessary before the installation of a full scale setup in the sea bed.

  17. What are gas hydrates • A gas hydrate consists of a water lattice in which light hydrocarbonmolecules are embedded resembling dirty ice.

  18. What are gas hydrates (continued) • Naturally occurring gas hydrates are a form of water ice which contains a large amount of methane within its crystal structure. • They are restricted to the shallow lithosphere (2000-4000 m depth) • With pressurization, they remain stable at temperatures up to 18°C.

  19. What are gas hydrates (continued) • The average hydrate composition is 1 mole of methane for every 5.75 moles of water. • The observed density is around 0.9 g/cm3. • One liter of methane clathrate solid would contain 168 liters of methane gas (at STP).

  20. Where are gas hydrates located? It is present in oceanic sediments along continental margins and in polar continental settings.

  21. The ocean scenario

  22. Various issues related to extraction of gas hydrates

  23. Recovery of Methane Gas from Gas Hydrates • Modifying the equilibrium conditions by • Depressurization • Inhibitor injection • Thermal stimulation

  24. Phase equilibrium diagram stable unstable

  25. Decomposition of hydrates by depressurization, thermal, and chemical techniques

  26. Exploitation schemes • DEPRESSURISATION: At fixed temperature, operating at pressures below hydrate formation pressure. • INHIBITION: Inhibition of the hydrate formation conditions by using chemicals such as methanol and salts. • HEAT SUPPLY: At fixed pressure, operating at temperatures above the hydrate formation temperature. This can be achieved by insulation or heating of the equipment.

  27. Schematic representation of production from a hydrate reservoir with underlying free gas

  28. Research aspects • Hydrate dissociation and formation • Molecular structure • Phase equilibrium diagram • Flow, transport, and chemical reactions in a complex pore network

  29. Schematic drawing of gas exchanges

  30. Mass transfer at constant pressure and temperature

  31. Mathematical Model Fluid flow  is the porosity and K, the permeability.

  32. Mathematical Model Heat transfer Fluid Solid

  33. Mathematical Model Species transport equation

  34. List of undetermined parameters • Dispersion coefficient • Permeability tensor • Inter-phase transport coefficient

  35. Unanswered questions • Stability boundary • Destabilization dynamics • Flow and transport in a hierarchical pore network • System development • Disaster management • Cost considerations

  36. Environmental impact • Carbon sequestration • Carbon capture and storage • Carbon trap technologies

  37. Conclusions • Irreversible shift towards gaseous fuels. • Gas hydrates are secondary gas sources (internationally) but are primary, in the national context. • Safe exploitation of methane from hydrate reservoirs calls for a massive research program.

  38. Thank you!