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Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior

Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior

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  1. Chapter 1Introduction to Organizational Behavior

  2. Chapter Objectives • Define organizational behavior and explain how and why it determines the effectiveness of an organization • Appreciate why the study of organizational behavior improves a person’s ability to understand and respond to events that take place in a work setting • Differentiate between the three levels at which organizational behavior is examined

  3. Chapter Objectives • Appreciate the way changes in an organization’s external environment continually create challenges for organizational behavior • Describe the four main kinds of forces in the environment that post the most opportunities and problems for organizations today

  4. IKEA’s Global Approach to OB • IKEA strives to increase employees’ skills and knowledge • IKEA provides employees with rewards that encourage high performance • IKEA encourages employee commitment and cooperation

  5. What is an Organization? • An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals • Individual goals • Organizational goals

  6. What is Organizational Behavior? • Organizational behavior (OB): the study of factors that have an impact on how people and groups act, think, feel, and respond to work and organizations, and how organizations respond to their environments

  7. Figure 1.1 What is Organizational Behavior? Insert Figure 1.1 here

  8. Organizational Level Group Level Individual Level Figure 1.2 Levels of Analysis

  9. Figure 1.3 Components of Organizational Behavior

  10. What is Management? • Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its effectiveness

  11. Figure 1.4 Four Functions of Management Planning Decide on organizational goals and allocate and use resources to achieve those goals Organizing Establish the rules and reporting relationships that allow people to achieve organizational goals Controlling Evaluate how well the organization is achieving goals and take action to maintain, improve, and correct performance Leading Encourage and coordinate individuals and groups so that they work toward organizational goals

  12. Figurehead Liaison Disseminator Entrepreneur Resource allocator Leader Monitor Spokesperson Disturbance handler Negotiator Table 1.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

  13. Managerial Skills Conceptual Skills Technical Skills Human Skills

  14. Figure 1.5 An Open Systems View of Organizational Behavior

  15. Challenges for Organizational Behavior • 1: Changing Social/ Cultural Environment • 2: Evolving Global Environment • 3: Advancing Information Technology • 4: Shifting Work/ Employment Relationships

  16. Changing Social and Cultural Environment • National culture • Organizational ethics and well-being • Diverse work force

  17. Diversity Challenges • Fairness and Justice • Decision-Making and Performance • Flexibility

  18. Figure 1.6 Diversity

  19. Evolving Global Environment • Understanding Global Differences • Improve Organization’s Behaviors and Procedures in Response to Those Differences

  20. Advancing Information Technology • Information • Knowledge • Information Technology • Organizational Learning • Intranets • Creativity • Innovation

  21. Shifting Work/ Employment Relationships • Downsizing • Empowerment and Self-Managed Teams • Contingent Workers • Outsourcing

  22. Appendix 1A: A Short History of Organizational Behavior • F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management • Mary Parker Follett • Hawthorne Studies • Theory X and Y

  23. F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management • Scientific management: the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency • The amount of and effort each employee expends to produce a unit of output can be reduced by increasing specialization and the division of labor

  24. Four Principles of Scientific Management • 1. Study the way employees perform their tasks, gather informal job knowledge that employees possess, and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed • 2. Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures

  25. Four Principles of Scientific Management_2 • 3. Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task, and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures • 4. Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level

  26. Mary Parker Follett • Management must consider the human side • Employees should be involved in job analysis • Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position • Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects

  27. The Hawthorne Studies • Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company; 1924-1932 • Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance (i.e., lighting) • Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered

  28. The Hawthorne Studies_2 • Factors influencing behavior: • Attention from researchers • Manager’s leadership approach • Work group norms • The “Hawthorne Effect”

  29. Theory X Average employee is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little as possible Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment Theory Y Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed Manager’s task is create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y