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Using Sources

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  1. Using Sources What to Cite, Harris Danielle M. Kwasnik, EdD kwasnik@nova.edu

  2. Using Sources • “If the information came from outside your own head, cite the source” (p. 16). • “If in doubt, cite it” (p. 19). • Choosing sources to Cite (Harris, 2005, pp. 16-19) Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. 

  3. Using SourcesSelecting Sources • Select sources based on level of scholarship. • Avoid selecting sources based on your level of agreement. • Carefully select Internet sources; avoid if possible. • “The expertise test: Is there evidence that the source knows the subject?” • “The accuracy test: Is the information correct today?” • “The reliability test: Is the information supported by other sources?” (Harris, 2005, pp. 34-43) Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. 

  4. Using SourcesQuotes Cautions for Quoting • Too often • Too heavy reliance on one source, and quoting that source too often • Lengthy quotations (Harris, 2005, pp. 50-51) Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. 

  5. Using SourcesParaphrases • What is a paraphrase? “A paraphrase converts a source’s words into about the same number of your own words” (p. 52). • When to paraphrase • How to paraphrase (Harris, 2005, pp. 52-58) Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. 

  6. Using SourcesParaphrases • 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing • Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. • Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. • Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. • Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. • Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. • Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/01/

  7. Using SourcesIntroducing Sources • Introductory strategies • Introductory verbs • Punctuation • Table of Quotation Verbs • “Always quote exactly” (p. 81). (Harris, 2005, pp. 74-81) Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. 

  8. Evaluating ResearchGuidelines • No research provides “proof.” • Use hedging language – “suggests,” or “provides strong evidence” or “appears to indicate.” (Pyrczak, 2005, pp. 7-8) • Pyrczak, F. (2005).Evaluating research in academic journals: A practical guide to realistic evaluation (3rd ed.).Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. 

  9. Sample reference list in APA References Anderson, L., Adelman, N., Finnigan, K., Cotton, L., Donnelly, M. B., & Price, T. (2002). A decade of public charter schools: Evaluation of the public charter school program 2000-2001 evaluation report. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from the SRI International Web site: http://www.sri.com/policy/cep/choice/yr2.pdf. (Online source – no doi available) Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (1998). Research in education (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. (Edited book) Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (1997). Reframing organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (Book) Dressler, B. (2001). Charter school leadership.Education and Urban Society, 33(4), 170-185. (Journal article) Edwards, B. (2005). How are California’s charter schools performing? Retrieved from http://www.edsource.org/pub_abs_charters05.cfm (online journal article) – no doi available

  10. References continued Opfer, V. D. (2001). Charter schools and the panoptic effect of accountability. Education and Urban Society, 33(2), 201-215. doi:10.1177/0013124501332008(Journalarticle w/doi) Sanders, M. G., Allen-Jones, G. L., & Abel, Y. (2002). Involving families and communities in the education of children and youth placed at risk. In S. Stringfield & D. Land (Eds.), Educating at-risk students (pp. 171-188). Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, University of Chicago Press. (Book chapter) Spillane, J. P., & Seashore Louis, K. (2002). School improvement processes and practices: Professional learning for building instructional capacity. In J. Murphy (Ed.), The educational leadership challenge: Redefining leadership for the 21stcentury (pp. 83-104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Book chapter) United States Government Accountability Office. (2005, January). Charter schools: To enhance educations monitoring research, more charter school level data are needed. Retrieved August 26, 2005 from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d055.pdf (Online source – no doi available) Wells, A., & Research Associates. (1998). Charter school reform in California: Does it meet expectations? Phi Delta Kappan, 80(4), 305-312. (Online source)

  11. Electronic Sources - Locator Information (APA manual – p. 187-189) • DOI: Digital Object Identifiers. An alphanumeric string assignment by a registration agency to identify content and provide a link to its location on the Internet. • THE DOI System provides citation-linking services for the scientific publishing sector. • The purpose of the DOI is to direct readers to content. • The DOI is a linking mechanism embedded in the reference lists of electronic sources. • www.crossref.org

  12. References and Suggested Texts • American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. • Galvan, J. L. (2006). Writing literature reviews:A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers. • Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.  • Pyrczak, F. (2005). Evaluating research in academic journals: A practical guide to realistic evaluation (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.  • Strunk, W., White, E. B., & Angell, R. (2000). The elements of style (4th ed.). New York, NY: Longman.